Bio chapter 3

  1. Ecology:
    is the scientific study of the interactions ammong organisms and between organisms and their eenvironment.
  2. Species: (lowest level of organization)
    a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.
  3. Populations (second level of org.)
    group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
  4. Communities (3rd level of org)
    assemplages of different population that live together in a defined area.
  5. Ecosystem (4th level of org)
    a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with nonliving environment.
  6. Biome (5th level of org)
    a group of ecosystems that have the smae climate and similar dominant communities.
  7. Biosphere (Last level of org. )
    • Contains the combines proportions of the planet in which all life exists, including land, water and air, or atmosphere
    • It is the highets level of organization.
  8. 6 different levels of organization
    • species
    • population
    • communities
    • ecosystem
    • biome
    • biosphere
  9. Ecological Methods
    • observe: questions
    • Experimenting: prving hypothesis
    • Modeling: gain insight into complex phonomena
  10. Energy Flow
    sunlisght is the main energy source for life on Earth
  11. Producers
    make their own food
  12. autotroph:
    capture energy from sunlight and chemicals and use enerfy to produce food
  13. Photosynthesis
    process in qhich autotrphs use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen (that we breathe) and energy-rich carbohydrates (starches).
  14. Chemosynthesis
    When organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
  15. Consumers
  16. Heterotrophs:
    • Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply
    • Herbivores: eat plants
    • Carnivores: eat animals
    • Omnivores: eat both
    • Detritivores: feed on plant and animal remains and other dead material
    • Decomposers: breaks down organic mater.
  17. Feeding Relationships
    Energy flows from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) to heterotrphs (consumers).
  18. Food Chain
    series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten.
  19. Food web
    • feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem that forms a nertwork of complex interactions
    • links all food chains in an ecosystem together
  20. Trophic levels
    • every step in a foood chain or web
    • Producers: 1st trophic lever
    • Consumers: (Herbivores, primary carnivores, top carnivores) 1st, 2nd, 3rd level consumers
    • Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy.
    • only 10% of energy is passed through every trophic level
  21. Ecological pyramid
    sshows the energy contained within each trophic level in a food chain or web
  22. Biomass
    The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
  23. The water cycle:
    evaporation, condensation, precipitation,
  24. The Carbon Cycle
    • CO2 is released by volanic activity, respiration, human activities and decomposition of organic matter
    • It is absorbes through photosynthesis and some found in the ovean
  25. Nitrogen Cycle
    nitrogen is cycled through the tissues of living organisms
Card Set
Bio chapter 3
the biosphere