1. Mass
    Element (There are 92 natural ones)
    • The quantity of matter in an object.
    • A material with definite and constant composition.
    • Two or more elements combined.
    • Substance that cannot be broken down simpler.
    • A definite proportion of chemically united elements.
    • Smallest particle of an element.
    • Two or more atoms chemically united.
  2. Radiation
    Atomic Z number
    Atomic mass units AMU
    Atomic mass number
    Describe 2n2-the max number of e- occupying a given shell.
    • Energy transmitted through matter
    • The number of nuclear protons in an atom. Determines what element it is.
    • When an atom gains or loses neutrons, becomes isotope.
    • Adding or removing electron from an atom.
    • The mass of the particles of an atom
    • Equal to the number of protons and neutrons
    • K= 2(1)squared=2 L=2(2)squared=8
  3. Electron volt
    K shell binding energy of tungsten is...
    electromagnetic energy
    EM electromagnetic radiation
    Electromagnetic spectrum- velocity of EM energy is equal to speed of light (3x10^8 meters/sec
    • The binding energy of an electron
    • 69.5 kev
    • a form of energy that is the result of electric and magnetic disturbance in space (light, radio, infrared, etc) and xrays
    • the distance between any two points on a wave
    • number of waves that pass a point in a time frame (hz)
  4. frequency and wavelength re in what proportion?

    low frequency and long wavelength- radio waves
    visible light- in the middle
    high frequency and short wavelength- gamma and xrays
    inversely proportional
  5. photon energy and frequency are in what proportion?
    Planck's constant = h
    E = hv, v = E/h
    Directly proportional- if F is doubled, E is doubled
  6. wilhelm roentgen, date?
    Nov 8 1895
  7. 4 properties of xrays-
    • electrically neutral-
    • not affected by elec or magnetic fields

    travel at 3 x 10^8 m in a vacuum

    can ionize
  8. Describe cathode assembly
    filament is made of?
    • Cathode- negative side of tube, to produce thermionic cloud, conduct the voltage to the gap, and focus towards the anode.includes the filaments and focusing cup
    • Thoriated tungsten wire
  9. Size of thermionic cloud depends on KVP or MAS?
    what is the focusing cup made of?
    what is the space charge effect?
    • MAS
    • Nickel
    • E- charges oppose the emission of additional charges- limits xray tubes to 1,000 to 1,200 MA.
  10. what drives a greater percentage of e- towards the anode?
    greater kvp
  11. What is the anode?
    what metal is the focal track?
    • the positive side- can be stationary (rhenium/tungsten) or rotating (molybdenum)
    • rhenium/tungsten
    • graphite backed anodes double heat-loading capabilities
  12. the portion of the anode where the high voltage stream will impact is the:
    target, focal spot, focal point, focal track
  13. actual focal spot vs effective focal spot:

    what is the effective focal spot controlled by?
    • Actual focal spot- where the beam strikes
    • effective focal spot- where the angle of the beam reduces the spot using the line-focus principle

    The actual focal spot which is controlled by the length of the filament and the anode target angle.
  14. most common target angle is?

    what is the anode heel effect?

    radiation intensity is greater on cathode side
  15. why does the rotor spin?

    any photons that escape from the housing (except at the port) are called?
    Leakage radiation must not exceed:
    to dissipate heat

    leakage radiation

    100 mR/hr at 1 meter
  16. what is off-focus radiation? what does it cause? is it from the patient?
    composed of photons that were not produced at the focal spot. causes ghosting . this is NOT patient scatter.
  17. off focus radiation can contribute what percent to the total primary beam?
  18. tube rating charts provide a guide to what?
    anode cooling charts provide a guide to what?
    what is the formula for the cooling chart?
    • the maximum technical factor combinations that can be used without overloading the tube.
    • calculating the time necessary for the anode to cool for additional exposures.
    • kvp x ma x time x rectification constant
  19. How fast are the electrons in the thermionic cloud traveling?

    what happens to the electrons after they strike the target?
    In the space of 2cm, they are accelerated to about 1/2 the speed of light

    they can have 1000 or more interactions before they are conducted through the anode to the circuit.
  20. what is produced by the incident electrons?
    what two types of target interactions produce xray photons?
    what does the interaction depend on?
    • 99% heat, 1% photons
    • bremstrahlung and characteristic.
    • the e- kinetic energy and the binding energy of the e- shells of the atom.
  21. when does a brems interaction occur?
    how does it result in a photon?
    • when an incident e- interacts with the force field of the nucleus (strong positive force)
    • the e- changes direction and the resulting photon energy is the difference between the entering and exiting kinetic energy of the e-.
  22. When does a characteristic interaction occur?
    how does a photon result?
    • when the incident electron interacts with an inner-shell electron
    • the e- knocks an inner-shell e- from orbit, ionizing the atom- a hole is created and outer-shell e-'s drop into it, resulting in the energy difference between the 2 shells being emitted as a photon.
  23. why are the resulting multiple photons of the cascade called characteristic photons?
    only the drops into which shell produce xray quality photons?
    • their energy is the difference between the inner and outer shells between which the electron dropped.
    • k shell
  24. between 80 and 100 kvp. what % of the primary beam is brems?
    if kvp is below 70, are characteristic photons useful?
    • 80-90%
    • no- tungsten e- removal requires 69.5 kev
  25. what is the kilovoltage peak?
    the maximium possible energy of exposure for any photon that exits the Xray tube.
  26. the average beam has keV energy of what percent of the kvp setting?
    30 to 40
  27. kvp controls?
    mAs controls?
    • quality of the beam- strength
    • quantity of the beam- # of e-'s
  28. what does filtering do to the strength of the beam?
    decreases intensity, but increases average photon energy
  29. what does ionizing radiation do when it interacts with matter?
    What are the two types of particulate radiation?
    Which are more harmful and why?
    • creates both positively and negatively charged particles, breaks molecular bonds.
    • Alpha and beta
    • Alpha are large, heavy, and can be stopped easily. They are similar to a helium atom.
    • Beta are identical to an electron, but emitted from nuclei of radioactive material (like gamma rays), travel 10-100cm
  30. What are the two medically useful (Xray) ionization processes?

    What is direct interaction?
    What is indirect interaction?
    Photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering

    • Radiation to a cell molecule
    • Radiation to a water molecule, causing free radical damage (causes 2/3 of all biological effects)
  31. Define somatic effects and genetic effects
    • Somatic- affecting the irradiated individual-
    • skin erythema, cataracts, malignancies

    Genetic- mutations
  32. Annual Effective Dose Equivalent for rad workers?
    cumulative dose?
    for students and public?
    • 5 rem or 50 mSv
    • 1 rem x age = XX rem (30 rem = 300 mSv
    • 0.1 rem
  33. Radiation equivalents: study this card, not a question
    Exposure per unit mass of air=Roentgen is eqiv to the coulomb/kg or c/kg
    Absorbed Dose in material- rad-- 1 gray= 100 rads
    rem- absorbed dose in gray plus qualifier for type of radiation = sievert
    exposure per unit mass of air- roentgen
    integral dose- total radiation to matter
    effective dose- to specific organs
  34. what is the SI equivalent of
    absorbed dose/gray?
    absorbed dose (gray plus weighing factor)/sievert?
    traditional name for exposure per unit mass of air?
    • roentgen
    • rad
    • rem
    • roentgen
  35. What type is our personnel exposure monitoring device?
    what is it comercially called?
    what type of material is inside?
    • an OSL- optically stimulated luminescence.
    • the luxel dosimeter
    • a thin strip of Aluminum oxide, with copper and tin filters.
  36. what does a TLD device use? (we dont use this)
    lithium fluoride
  37. 3 basic principles or cardinal rules of exposure reduction?

    what is the law of the relationship between distance and exposure intensity?
    time, distance, shielding

    the inverse square law
  38. what is the basic formula of the inverse square law?
    if the distance is doubled, exposure is reduced by factor of 4. (two squared)
  39. protective lead aprons must posess a minimum of what amount?
    0.5 mm Pb eq
  40. a minimum total filtration for the xray equipment is what mm Al/Eq?
    Technical factors with a lower patient dose would be in what proporion?
    • 2.5 mm Al/Eq
    • High kvp, low mAs
  41. what is the dose limit for a fetus?
    exposure in pregnancy should not exceed 0.05 rem to fetus
  42. what is the half-value layer?
    what is inherent filtration?
    Added filtration collimators add how much filtration?
    • the amount of absorbing material that reduces the intensity of the primary beam by 1/2.
    • comes from the window of the glass envelope, the oil, and the tube housing. usually about 1mm al/eq
    • about 1mm al/eq.
  43. Compound filters are also called what? what is a good example of one?
    what is the filter that is for unequal subject densities?
    what are 2 examples of these?
    • K edge filters, to absorb in layers- thoreaus
    • a compensating filter-
    • wedge and trough filters
  44. does total filtration include use of compound filters?
    at what filtration is a point of diminishing returns reached?
    • no. it is without these.
    • 3.0 mm al/eq
  45. what are the THREE prime factors?
    xray quantity, intensity, or exposure is controlled by what?
    Xray quality (represented in HVL) or penetrability is controlled by what?
    • kvp, mas, and distance
    • mas, kvp, distance, and filtration.
    • kilovoltage and filtration.
  46. Mas is the measurement of what?
    1 amp or 1 coulomb is equal to what unit amount?
    a milliamp then is what?
    • xray tube curent- number of e- per second
    • 6.3 X 10^18
    • 6.3 x 10^15
  47. mas and exposure are in what proportion?
    mas and xray quantity are in what proportion?
    200 mA at 0.083 second =
    100 mA at 2/5 second =
    • Direct.
    • Direct.
    • 16.6 mAs
    • 40 mAs
  48. the primary controller of film density is what?
    the law of the relationship between mAs and density is what?
    what does it state?
    • mAs
    • reciprocity law
    • density should remain unchanged it mAs is the same
  49. kvp controls what?
    higher kvp causes an increase in what?
    what rule states that a 15% increase in kvp results in doubling of exposure?
    • both quantity (at the target) and quality of the beam.
    • Speed and energy of the beam, penetrating ability
    • the 15% rule
  50. image at 25 mAs at 70 kvp. what kvp would double the exposure?
    • 15% of 70 kvp = 10.5 kvp
    • 70 + 10.5 = 80.5 kvp (or 81)
  51. the relationship of xray quantity to distance is?
    what does the law state?
    if distance increases by three, the intensity would decrease by a factor of what?
    • the inverse square law
    • the intensity at a given distance is inversely proportional to the square of the distance
    • Three, squared. or 9.
  52. intensity 1 = distance 2, squared
    ---------- --------------------
    intensity 2 distance 1, squared

    what formula is this?
    the inverse square law
  53. an xray exposure of 240 mR at 20 inches,
    becomes a 40 inch distance.
    what is the new mR?
    60 mR
  54. The exposure maintenance formula states what?
    what is the formula?
    • Raising exposure factors to compensate for more distance and maintain density.
    • mas 1 = distance 1 squared
    • ----- ------------------
    • mas 2 distance 2 squared
  55. 25 mas at 80 kvp, at 40 inches, density is maintained at 56 inches by doing what?
    mas 2 becomes 49 mAs
  56. what is the appropriate amount of exposure to the IR?
    1 to 2 mR
  57. low energy photons are most likely to interact with what part of the atom?
    intermediate energy photons are most likely to interact with what?
    high energy photons are capable of interacting with what?
    • the whole atom.
    • the orbital electrons.(most common in diagnostic xray)
    • the nucleus (most common in radiation therapy)
  58. what is the atomic number of tungsten?
  59. what are the five basic interactions between xrays and matter?
    • PE absorption
    • Coherent scattering
    • Compton scattering
    • Pair production
    • Photodisintegration
  60. photoelectric absorption results when?
    what happens to the incident photon?
    the ejected e- becomes what?
    • the photon interacts with an innershell e-
    • it gets absorbed
    • a photoelectron of matter with energy equal to the difference between the incident photon and the binding energy.
  61. when the characteristic photons are released from e- falling into the k shell hole in the irradiated matter, what is the radiation called?

    aluminum= 13
    lead = 88
    secondary radiation.
  62. 2 other names for coherent scatter
    what is thompson coherent?
    what is rayleigh coherent?
    • classical or unmodified
    • involves a single electron
    • involves all the electrons
  63. three basic rules governing pe interactions:
    the incident energy must be greater than?
    the photon energy and the e- binding energy are what?
    a pe interaction is more likely with an electron that is ? in its orbit?

    as photon energy increases, the chance of a photoelectric interaction-
    • the binding energy of the inner shell e-
    • close to each other
    • more tightly bound

  64. at 50 kvp, scatter and PE are about equal (50/50). As kvp goes up, scattering goes ? and pe interaction goes ?

    at 130 kvp, scatter and PE are about what percentages?
    • up
    • down
    • 75/25
  65. as kvp goes up, attenuation goes?
    as kvp goes up, transmission goes?
    as kvp goes up, scatter goes?
    as kvp goes up, photoelectric goes?
    • down
    • up
    • up
    • down
  66. Compton scattering occurs when an incident photon interacts with an ?
    what happens to the e-?
    what happens to the incident photon?
    • outer shell electron
    • it becomes a free e- to fill hole in an atom
    • it continues in a different direction with lower frequency and longer wavelength
  67. what is the primary cause of occupational radiation exposure?
    compton scatter radiation emitted from the patient
  68. unwanted exposures on the xray image is called
    radiation fog
  69. in pair production, the energy of the xray photon is converted to matter in the form of two-
    photon energy required for p.p.interaction is?
    what is created when a high energy photon comes close to the nucleus?
    • electron
    • 1.02 meV
    • a pair of electrons- a negatron (-) and a positron (+)
  70. what happens to the positron?
    what is the reaction called?
    does it occur in diagnostic imaging?
    • it combines with an electron, and creates 2 photons of 0.51 mev each
    • annihilation reaction
    • no
  71. what is photodisintegration?
    what happens?
    is it relevant to diagnostic imaging?
    • a photon above 10 mev interacting with the nucleus
    • the nucleus emits a fragment
    • no
  72. at 50 kvp. 10 cm tissue, what percent of beam is attenuated and what percent is transmitted?
    at 130 kvp, what % is attenuated and what % is trans?
    • 99.27
    • .73
    • 94.40
    • 5.60as kvp increases, non interactive transmission increases
  73. when kvp goes up, the % of PE decreases but Compton increases.
    In diagnostic xray, what is the predominant interaction?
    when does PE predominate?
    • compton scattering
    • in low kvp ranges, or when high atomic number contrast is used.
  74. what are the best two ways to minimize scatter?
    what are the two main benefits of reducing scatter?
    • restricting the beam and using a grid
    • reducing patient dose and improving image quality
  75. high atomic number materials attenuate a ? amount than lesser atomic numbers

    the order of body tissues from MOST to LEAST in attenuation would be:
    • greater
    • bone, muscle, water, fat, air
  76. the 4 properties affecting recorded detail are:
    subject density, subject contrast, subject detail, and subject distortion
  77. DEFINE subject density, subject contrast, subject detail, and subject distortion
    • density- changes in amount or type of tissue
    • contrast- degree of absorption of different tissues
    • detail- part position in the body and in relation to the IR
    • distortion- lack of accurate representation of structures
  78. Formula used to determine field size of projected image when using an aperture diaphragragm:
    diaphragm is 5 inches from focal spot

    aperture is 2 inches

    SID 40 inches

    what is image size?
    SID x diameter of diaphragm


    distance from focal spot to diaphragm

    image size is 16 inch circle
  79. what is another term for an automated collimator?
    collimators add about how much filtration?
    what are some ancillary devices?
    • positive beam limitation
    • 1 mm al/eq
    • lead mask, lead blockers (any size/shape)
  80. the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is called the-
    isotopes have different mass numbers and the same ? numbers
    atomic number is the number of-
    atomic mass number minus protons equals number of-
    • Mass number
    • atomic
    • protons
    • neutrons
  81. driving the thermionic cloud from the cathode to the anode requires-
    tungsten is preferred for the target because of its-
    • a large potential difference
    • high atomic number
  82. photon energy and frequency are in what proportion?
    an xray is a wave and a?
    characteristic cascade results in:
    • directly proportional
    • particle
    • a photon of energy
  83. which shell electrons posess the most energy?
    the outer shell. the inner shells have the most BINDING energy.
  84. during coherent scattering, the scattered photon posesses the same -what- as the incident photon?
    energy, frequency, and wavelength
  85. the relationship between intensity of radiation and distance is the:
    reciprocity law
Card Set
ALL definitions, key terms