Unit 3 ID

  1. Election of 1800/”Revolution of 1800”-
    “Revolution” b/c Adam’s defeat = ushered in generation of Demo-Repub rule and decay of the Federalist Party; voting complications lead to penning of the Twelfth Amendment (Procedure for VP)
  2. Pres. Jefferson and VP Burr-
    Election results first proved to be a tie btwn Burr and Jefferson; though he detested both, rematch features an anti-Burr Hamilton strongly lobbying against Burr & advocating Jefferson = Jefferson’s victory! Burr-Hamilton tension leads to Hamilton’s death(end of Fed. Party) in a duel; reason why Electoral College = inept -> penning of 12th Amendment
  3. ● Jefferson’s Inaugural Address-
    Jefferson’s simple inauguration when he dressed & behaved like a commoner to contrast w/ Adam’s pomp and extravagant manner; "We are all Federalists, we are all Republicans" declared that he wanted to keep the nation unified & avoid partisan conflicts (message = ambivalent due to underlying bashing of Federalist policies and an address reverberating with Demo-Repub principles); supporters and eventually himself disagreed w/ reconciliation
  4. ● Judiciary Act of 1801/”Midnight Judges Act”-
    In an effort to maintain Federalist control of gov’t, lame-duck Adams filled many newly-created circuit courts with Federalist judges (“midnight judges” b/c signed their appointments midnight b4 Jefferson’s inauguration); contributed to Marbury v Madison (Madison doesn’t accept Marbury’s appointment, Marbury: “Supreme Court, I want writ of mandate [Judiciary Act 1789] to force him to appoint me,” Marshall: “NO! 1789’s unconstitutional... Holy crap, I declare jud. review our new power!”)
  5. ● Justice Samuel Chase-
    A founder of Sons of Liberty & lead opposition to 1765 Stamp Act; Revol. War hero & signer of Declaration; Fed. Judge who Washington elected during his presidency; ONLY US Supreme Judge to be impeached (under Jefferson b/c Chase’s usage of pol. bias/partisanship to control court cases); set limits of impeachment power, fixed concept that the judiciary was prohibited from engaging in pol. partisanship (attitudes modified pol. norms w/o codifying legal doctrines); defined role of a judge in a jury trial, & clarified judicial independence
  6. ● Tripolitan War/1st Barbary War-
    (1801-05)series of naval engagements launched by Jefferson to stop Barbary pirate attacks on Amer merchant ships; war = inconclusive & continue to pay tribute to Barbary states(Mahgreb) to protect ships from pirate attacks; 4 yrs naval endurance= naval respect
  7. ● Treaties of San Ildefonso-
    3 treaties: (1st) btwn Spain & Portugal in 1777, Spain trades off Brazilian territory for control over Banda Oriental/Uruguay; (2nd) btwn Spain & France in 1796, form alliance & combine forces aga. Britain; (3rd) Spain & France in 1800, Spain returns LA to France (unspecified boundaries -> point of contention btwn Spain & US after LA Purchase)
  8. ● Louisiana Purchase(1803)-
    US purchase of land from France encompassing territories from the MS River to Rockies for mere price of $15 million; T.Jeff (farmer-phile) interested in territory for it gives room for agrarians to expand, gives US the MS River & New Orleans (trade & shipping); Napoleon eager to sell b/c needs $$$ for Euro campaigns (Haitian rebellion soured his attitude of New World colonies) & France needed more time and resources to focus on brawl w/ Britain; Constitution did not give fed government the power to buy land, so T.Jeff used loose construction to justify the purchase; emphasized how T. Jeff won’t adhere to strict construction after all
  9. ● Toussaint L’Ouverture-
    role in Haitian independence: slave rebellion/Haitain Revol. 1803(Napoleon found New World colonies = more trouble than worth -> encouraged LA Purchase), abolish slavery, est. “native” control over colony, wrote Constitution that established himself = governor-for-life & new polity for colony; legacy: played role in 1st successful attempt by slaves to win independence from Euro. colonialism (New World’s slavery questioned), defeated 3 powers (France, Spain & Britain -> Santo Domingo); victory -> Haiti = 2nd independent repub. in Americas; absolutism reign ends w/ Napolean’s destruction & or Haitian coups
  10. ● Federalist opposition to Louisiana Purchase- reasons:
    favored close relations w/ British rather than Napolean; “unconstitutional;” concerned that “We’re paying LOTS of $ just to go to war w/ Spain(still thought land belonged to France); loss of voice/influence & ignorance to int’l facts -> revealed Federalists’ weaknesses, leading to collapse of Fed. Party
  11. ● Hamilton-Burr Duel- a
    rose from long-standing personal & pol. bitterness btwn 2 politicians; after his loss in 1800 Elec. (b/c of Hamilton), he switched to Fed. Party & ran for governor of New York; he lost (b/c Hamilton intervened, made defamatory remarks that cost him election); reaction = DUEL! Hamilton died (July, 1804); Burr indicted of murder (duel = illegal in northern US) though later dismissed; however signaled end of Burr’s pol. career & near end of Fed. Party (w/o Hamilton & Washington -> no strong leader)
  12. Lewis and Clark Expedition-
    1st overland expedition undertaken in US to Pacific coast and back; Jefferson commissioned exploration to gain accurate sense of resources being exchanged in LA Purchase(main goal); other goals include: drawing of maps, gathering of scientific knowledge, mingling and ”est. friendly relationships” w/ Natives; laid groundwork for western expansion & strengthened US claims to OR Terr.
  13. ● Pike Expedition-
    1st excursion to explore the south and west of LA Purchase; 1st Amer. effort to explore Great Plains & Rocky Mtns. (documented Pike Peak named after Zebulon Pike); laid groundwork for western expansion, conflicting land boundary led to his capture by Spanish
  14. ● Berlin Decree 1806
    - installed Continental System in Euro(forbade import of Brit goods into Euro countries dependent or allied w/ France); led to French econ ruin while Brit econ = unaffected (control of Atlantic trade); Euro nations removed themselves from Continental System, leading in part to Napoleon’s downfall
  15. ● Polly Case, Essex Case
    1806 - Essex Case; British reverse policy and seize American ships trading with French colonies; America responds with Non-Importation Act stopping imports of some items from Great Britain
  16. ● Orders in council 1807-
    response to Berlin Decree 1806, these Brit laws forbade trade w/ France by Brit, her allies or neutrals, and instructed the Royal Navy to blockade French and allied ports; questions Amer alliance btwn France & Brit (ambiguous answer=harassment) -> War of 1812; succeeded by Milan Decree 1807
  17. ● Milan Decree 1807-
    Napolean issued decree to enforce Berlin Decree (Continental System); basis for plans of Brit defeat by waging economic warfare: prohibited Euro countries from trading w/ Britain; questioned Amer alliances -> harassment -> War of 1812; led to econ ruin for France, didn’t effect Britain
  18. ● Impressment-
    Brit seamen often deserted to join Amer merchant ships; Brit Navy would board Amer vessels to retrieve deserters, often seizing any sailor who couldn’t prove Amer or Brit citizenship; impressments caused serious tensions btwn Amer & Brit -> War of 1812; after US defeated Napolean, impressment no longer used; though violated Brit Constitution, able to get away b/c supported Royal Navy & marital realm
  19. ● Chesapeake-Leopard Affair –
    June 1807, British warship Leopard stops American frigate Chesapeake off Virginia coast and demands four crew members be handed over to the British. The Chesapeake refuses, the Leopard opens fire killing 3 and wounding 18. Chesapeake limps back to port, story spreads, and causes cries of outrage all over; prompts Jefferson to withdraw American ships, pass the Embargo Act
  20. ● Embargo of 1807 -
    Act which forbid American ships from sailing to foreign ports, was opposed and ignored, especially in New England and port cities. CT governor threatens nullification. Federalists rebound in next election. Congress repeals act in 1809; caused Federalists to gain support. Brings up nullification again. Embargo damages the US economy
  21. ● Nonintercourse Act –
    Replaced Embargo act in 1809. Said America’s could ship to anywhere but France and Britain; proved unenforceable; damaged US economy, but helped save face after repeal of the Embargo.
  22. ● Macon’s Bill No. 2 –
    1810, intended to motivate France and GB to stop seizing American ships and infringing on neutral rights. Lifted all embargoes with Britain or France. If either one of the two countries stopped attacks upon American shipping, the United States would cease trade with the other, unless that country agreed to recognize the rights of the neutral American ships as well; Napoleon exploited this and said he’d stop, but he lied.
  23. ● Tecumseh –
    leader of Shawnee; carried message of Indian nationalism and resistance to Creek and Cherokee. Established headquarters at Kithtippecanoe, which burned in 1811 when he lost to Harrison. Helped by the Canadians during War of 1812. Finally lost at Battle of Thames where Harrison’s troops kill him; gathered Indians together to resist the Americans.
  24. ● War Hawks –
    group of West and Southern leaders, Republican in party but impatient with the administration, who advocated war with GB. Included Henry Clay, Richard Johnson, John Calhoun, Langdon Cheves, etc. Talked of expanding into Canada and Florida; influenced Madison’s decision to go to war in 1812
  25. ● Causes of War of 1812 –
    pressure from War Hawks (west & south), British presence in America, Brit-Indian alliances, British impressment of American ships, British arrogance, pressure to expand; caused the war of 1812 (though few things solved)
  26. ● Why GB and not France? –
    Revolutionary enemy vs. revolution ally, Americans proud of French revolution, GB’s acts more blatant
  27. ● Federalist opposition to War of 1812
    – Federalists didn’t want the westward expansion war would bring b/c they’d lose power. Attacked by republicans (Baltimore riots). Go to the Hartford Convention to oppose it; made them look unpatriotic and caused party’s death when we decided we won the war
  28. ● Naval engagements
    – Commander Perry’s defeat of British fleet on Lake Erie in 1813; turning point in war in Old NW; this and other naval fights showed power of US navy
  29. ● Fort McHenry – Francis Scott Key –
    fort defended Baltimore harbor from attack from British navy in 1814. Francis Key was in there at the time and he decided to write the poem “Star-Spangled Banner”●
  30. Jackson’s victory at New Orleans –
    1815, was final major battle of war, after the Treaty had been signed. Army commanded by Jackson defeated invading British army that was trying to take over New Orleans and Louisiana. Seen as greatest American land victory of the war; boosted Jackson’s popularity and helped him land the white house later.
  31. ● Critics of war –
    New England merchants didn’t like the disruption of trade, didn’t like that the war was useless, had nothing to gain from war, kept getting attacked by British Navy; made them look unpatriotic when war over; kept opposition to the war concentrated in the NE
  32. ● Hartford Convention(1814)-
    delegates(mainly Federalists) from NE states met in Hartford, CT in opposition to War of 1812; threatened to secede from the Union; Determined they would support a change to require 2/3 vote of both houses in order to go to war; b/c war ended so quickly & Amer believed “we defeated GB” the Hartford Convention made Federalists look unpatriotic – marks the end of the Federalist Party
  33. ● Treaty of Ghent-
    • took place (Christmas Eve, 1814) @ Ghent, Belgium; Ended war of 1812, released all prisoners, restored all land, recognized pre-war boundary btwn US and Canada; silent on all issues that caused war in first place! But it makes America feel like it’s won and increases patriotism
    • Nationalism and Sectionalism to 1828
  34. ● Economic independence and nationalism due to war –
    B/c of the Embargo, the blockades, the war, etc... domestic manufacturing has boomed, making US economically independent; Amer. feel like we’ve won a “2nd War for Independence” & regained honor (nationalism increased); America can focus on westward expansion and internal issues now, and can ignore Britain
  35. ● Second Bank of the US –
    reversal of Jefferson’s ideas; chartered in 1816 by Madison to finance country after War of 1812 put them into so much debt. Madison was directly against Jefferson’s ideas, who really opposed the Bank, because the Bank was not in the constitution and promoted merchants over farmers; helped the US have an econ boom but lead to the panic of 1819 because it drove up land prices and had lots of fraud
  36. ● Tariff of 1816 –
    protective tariff on imported wool, cotton, iron, hats, and sugar. Imposed b/c GB developed a large stockpile of goods( to extent that Brit goods = extra cheap in comparison to that of Amer goods); hurt American manufactures, so this was designed to help them; made North happy, south outraged. Set precedent for other tariffs, like the future Tariff of Abominations
  37. ● Panic of 1819-
    A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank and it's part in causing inflation and then deflation. Ends the Era of Good Feelings. It hurts westerners the most; there is less westward expansion due to fewer loans. National belief is shaken.
  38. ● West Florida 1810-
    The U.S. wanted this region, which now forms the southern parts of the states of Alabama and Mississippi, because it bordered the Mississippi River. The U.S. seized West Florida after an uprising by American settlers in the region. Eventually led to the purchase of Florida under the Adams-Onis Treaty.
  39. ● Purchase of FL-
    1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas. The US are slowly ridding the surrounding lands of European influences.
  40. ● Adams Onis Treaty-
    Also known as the Transcontinental Treaty. Spain gave up Florida to the U.S. and the U.S./Mexico border was set so that Texas and the American Southwest would be part of Mexico. Fuels US expansionism.
  41. ● Monroe Doctrine – origins, provisions, impact-
    1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
  42. ● Era Of Good Feelings-
    A name for President Monroe’s two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
  43. ● Chief Justice John Marshall-
    Justice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established the judiciary as a branch of government equal to the legislative and executive. In Marbury v. Madison he established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional.
  44. ● Missouri – Tallmadge Amendment, Missouri Compromise-
    When Missouri applied for statehood, there was a dispute over whether it would be admitted as a slave state or a free state. The Tallmadge Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri with its existing slave population, but would forbid the introduction of additional slaves and free all slave children at age 25. It was not put into effect. The Missouri Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state and at the same time admitted Maine as a free state. It declared that all territory north of the 36°30" latitude would become free states, and all territory south of that latitude would become slave states.
  45. ● Clay’s American System-
    3 components: Protective tariff kept people from buying foreign goods, increased American manufacturing and revenue, and more tax revenue for US federal government. National Bank would keep whole system operating, providing sound currency, making sure money got spread out to all parts of the country geographically. Federally funded internal improvements would develop the south and west. This program was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper, by providing a defense against the dumping of cheap foreign products, mainly at the time from the British Empire.
  46. ● Growth of industry in New England – textiles-
    The industrial revolution had occurred in England in the 1700s, but it was not until the period industrial growth after the War of 1812 that the U.S. began to manufacture goods with the aid of factories and machines. New England, rather than the South, emerged as a manufacturing center because New England had many rivers to supply water power, plus a better system of roads and canals. The first major industry in New England was textiles.
  47. ● Samuel Slater-
    (1768-1835) When he emigrated from England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English factory. With these plans, he helped build the first factory in America.
  48. ● Robert Fulton-
    A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America’s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.•His inventions greatly improved trade and shipping.
  49. ● Eli Whitney- 1798 -
    He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
  50. ● Boston Associates, Lowell, MA-
    The Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.•Their image as a textile town was later modeled upon by other towns in the Northeast.
  51. ● Daniel Webster- (1782-1852)
    • A great American orator. He gave several important speeches, first as a lawyer, then as a Congressman. He was a major representative of the North in pre-Civil War Senate debates, just as Sen. John C. Calhoun was the representative of the South in that time.•His speeches tried to convince people not to consider nullification.
    • ● National (Cumberland) Road-
    • The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
  52. ● Internal improvements-
    The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
  53. ● Dewitt Clinton(1825) -
    NY governor who approved project of Erie Canal(Erie canal opened as a toll waterway connecting NY to Great Lakes) Along with the Cumberland Road, it helped connect the North and the West; Erie Canal boosted commerce (esp. a more prosperous west); promoted unity b/c westerners could communicate more easily w/ easterners
  54. ● New states, 1815-1840-
    when admitting new states, gov’t tried to maintain a balance between slave states & free states: Indiana (1816, free), Mississippi (1817, slave), Illinois (1818, free), Alabama (1819, slave), Maine (1820, free), Missouri (1821, slave), Arkansas (1836, slave), and Michigan (1837, free); compromise enabled the abolitionists and anti-abolitionists to remain on semi-good terms preventing serious issues; tension from slavery issue leads up to Civil War
  55. ● Federal government’s land policies:
    1796- land was sold in 640-acre tracts or more for no less than $2 per acre; 1800- the minimum lot size was reduced to 320 acres; 1804- the minimum lot size was 160 acres, and the minimum price $1.64 per acre; 1804- the minimum lot size was 80 acres, and the minimum price $1.25 per acre; the reduced lot size enabled a greater # of Amer to buy same chunk of land; policies reduced crowded cities in east & boosted western expansion.
  56. ● New England’s opposition to cheap land
    -New Englanders opposed the federal government’s liberal land policy b/c their region didn’t benefit from money made off the land sales; created tension(+ mulitple conflicts) btwn NE merchants & westerners
  57. ● John Quincy Adams
    -served as Secret. of State under pres Monroe; he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty(1819) where Spain gave FL to U.S. in exchange for the U.S. dropping its claims to Texas; created peaceful bond btwn Spain & US (kept issues away for a while); . Monroe Doctrine (mostly Adams’ work) described the future relationship btwn E. & W. Hemis (Euro keeps out of W. Hemis & everything will be dandy); fact that Euro. obliged until WWI proved to Amer “their superiority” & to Euro how sick they were of New World
  58. ● Election of 1824-
    Popular vote: Jackson(42%), Q.Adams(32%), Clay(13%), Crawford (13%). Electoral vote: Jackson - 99, Q. Adams - 84, Crawford - 41, Clay - 37. House vote: Q. Adams - 13, Jackson - 7, Crawford - 4, Clay - dropped; RESULT: Jackson did not have a majority in the electoral vote, so Adams won (according to House of Rep. votes); loss embittered Jackson’s attitude towards Q. Adams so he aggressively points out his “corrupt bargain” w/ Clay
  59. ● "Corrupt Bargain"-
    charge made by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office; unfair play led to decreased faith in the fed government and issues between parties.
  60. ● Panama Conference-
    summoned by the Venezuelan revol. leader, Simon Bolivar, in 1826 to discuss commercial treaties, adopt a code of international law, and arrive at a common Latin American policy toward Spain. Two delegates were sent by the U.S., but were delayed so long that when they got there the meeting was over. They were uncomfortable about black and whites mixing at the meeting; Demonstrated close ties btwn N. & S. Amer
  61. ● Tariff of Abominations(“Tariff of 1828”)-
    raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights; North-South contention, econ difference = another reason why Civil War was fought
  62. ● South Carolina Exposition-
    VP Calhoun anonymously published this essay which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress; written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said “placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights” & suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution; SC had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; put more rights into the hands of the people and allowed them to make sure that the government did not abuse its power.
  63. ● Jacksonian Revolution of 1828 (“Revol. of the Common Man”)-
    when Jackson was elected president (1st non-aristocrat) from humble beginnings, people thought he could make American Dream come true. Jackson appointed common people to government positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmers’ welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and farmers; common people having increased faith in the government which stimulated national unity
  64. ● “Age of the Common Man”-
    Jackson's presidency; He felt that government should be run by common people (a democracy based on self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a free press); all white men could now vote, and the increased voting rights allowed Jackson to be elected; Jackson shot down many discrimination issues; promoted pol. interest b/c he promoted more commoner influence in gov’t
  65. ● Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics-
    The Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories, & rise of Abolition movement; Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions; Jackson’s presidency stressed the rise of influence of the common man, and slandered the ways of the aristocrat; his reforms = successful albeit controversial
  66. ● Franchise extended-
    more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land; stimulated interest in the government and also set aside class distinctions
  67. ● Spoils system-
    "To the victor go the spoils"- winner of election may do whatever they want with staff; Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own; allowed the president to pick its cabinet which led to less controversy in the national government.
  68. ● National Republicans-
    After 1824 election, part of Demo-Repub party joined JQ. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson (conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness); favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense; supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful; they joined the Whigs in 1830's; kept Jackson’s radical policies more grounded and helped to make his policies more neutral
  69. ● Caucus System, Nation Nominating Conventions
    In the National Nominating Convention, delegates voted on the results of a primary. In the Caucus System, candidates were elected by small, secretive party groups and the public had little say in the process. This is important because it led to a stronger national government who had more say over the outcome of the election than the common people.
  70. ● Kitchen Cabinet
    ● A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet". This led to issues between Jackson and the rest of the national government.
  71. ● Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
    ● A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears". Here, Jackson removed the Indians from their home and for the first time, America was officially taking over the Indian population and asserting jurisdiction over them which led to many American-Indian conflicts.
  72. ● Worchester v. Georgia; Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
    ● Worchester v. Georgia: 1832 - The Supreme Court decided Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Georgia refused to enforce decision and President Jackson didn't support the Court. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: 1831 - The Supreme Court ruled that Indians weren't independent nations but dependent domestic nations which could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871, treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal government. After the first Court hearing another was passed allowing Indians to make decisions for themselves which led to a slight betterment in American and Indian relations.
  73. ● Whigs – origins and policies-
    Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. During Election of 1832 (Jackson v. Clay) when National Republicans started being called Whigs; they nominate Clay. Whigs were generally people of greater wealth and they had the strongest support in New England and the Upper Midwest. They favored national banks, internal improvements, and tariff protection. Many large southern cotton planters joined Whigs because of their position on national bank. Line between reform and politics hazy- politics and moral issues often came together. On pg 373 there is a chart of differences btwn Whigs & Democrats. Party identification increasing because of these two parties.
  74. ● Maysville Road veto -1830 -
    The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
  75. ● Election of 1832-
    Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election. Jackson views his victory as a victory for his Bank policy and therefore tries to weaken the Bank. Leads to serious economic consequences (Panic of 1837).
  76. ● Clay – bank recharter-
    • The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in 1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered. This was the main issue in the Election of 1832. Clay and Webster had persuaded Biddle to ask Congress to recharter the bank in 1832, 4 years early, because they thought Jackson would not risk a veto in election year. But Jackson vetoed it and took it public. Bank furor helped to clarify party differences.
  77. Veto message- 1832 -
    Jackson, in his veto message of the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners. He condemned the bank as undemocratic, un-American, and unconstitutional. This was meant to stir up voters. This veto message turned the rechartering issue into a struggle between the people and the aristocracy.
  78. ● Jackson’s removal of deposits, Taney, pet banks, Loco-Focos-
    Angry because Biddle used bank funds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, Jackson removed federal deposits from the bank in 1833, firing the secretaries of treasury who wouldn't comply, and was charged with abuse of power. Roger B. Taney was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S. Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds. Loco Focos (1835) were Democrats who wanted reform and opposed tariffs, banks, monopolies, and other places of special privilege.
  79. ● Peggy Eaton affair- Social scandal (1829-1831)
    - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
  80. ● Calhoun’s resignation-
    Calhoun, from SC, was Vice President at time & strong opponent of the tariff. In 1828 he published (anonymously) Exposition and Protest , presenting the doctrine of nullification as a means in which southern states could protect themselves from harmful national action. Jackson did not believe that any state had the right to reject the will of the majority or to destroy the Union. The split between Jackson and Calhoun also widened because of personal and ideological issues and in 1832 Calhoun resigned. He was appointed senator in South Carolina to present their case to Congress.
  81. ● South opposition to Tariff of 1828-
    “ Tariff of Abominations” The North wanted tariffs that protected new industries, but the agricultural Southern states depended on cheap imports of manufactured goods and only wanted tariffs for revenue. The South strongly opposed protective tariffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, and protested by asserting that enforcement of the tariffs could be prohibited by individual states, and by refusing to collect tariff duties. This tariff was primarily designed to win necessary support in key states for the Democrats.
  82. ● Jefferson Day Dinner – toasts-
    April 13, 1830 - At the Jefferson anniversary dinner, President Jackson toasted, "Our federal union! It must and shall be preserved!" making it clear to the nullifiers that he would resist the states' rights supporters' claim to nullify the tariff law. V.P. Calhoun's response to the toast was, "The union, next to our liberty, most dear. May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing evenly the benefits and burdens of the Union." Calhoun had wanted Jackson to side with him (for states' rights) in public, but he didn't succeed. Showed the differences in beliefs of Jackson and Calhoun which caused Calhoun to resign in 1832.
  83. ● Clay – compromise tariff of 1833 – Force Act-
    Henry Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise. 1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
  84. ● Calhoun splits with Jackson- 1832 -
    Calhoun resigned as vice-president when his views on states' rights were disputed by Jackson. Calhoun wanted each section of the country to share federal power equally, and he wanted independence for the South if they were to be controlled by the majority. (same info that’s in Calhoun’s resignation).
  85. ● Specie Circular- 1836 -
    The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. Panicky investors rushed to change paper notes into specie, while banks started calling in loans. Led to the Panic of 1837.
  86. ● Chatales River Bridge Decision-
    1837 - The Charles River Bridge Decision, delivered by Roger B. Taney, modified C.J. Marshall's ruling in the Dartmouth College Case of 1819, which said that a state could not make laws infringing on the charters of private organizations. Taney ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge. Began the legal concept that private companies cannot injure the public welfare.
  87. ● Panic of 1837-
    When Jackson was president, he wanted to enforce his decision to remove the national bank. He decided to weaken the bank by transferring $10 million in government funds to state banks. Only Roger Taney agreed to do it. A wave of speculation in western lands and ambitious new state internal improvement schemes in the mid-1830s produced inflated land prices and a flood of paper money. Jackson tried to curtail irresponsible economic activity by issuing the Specie Circular. Panicky investors rushed to change paper notes into specie, while banks started calling in loans. Led to the Panic of 1837. Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress. Jackson was blamed for this rapid monetary expansion followed by sudden deflation but international trade problems with Britain and China probably contributed more to the panic and ensuing 7 years of depression. Left the economic crisis to Martin Van Buren.
  88. ● Rise of 2nd party system-
    Since the 1840's, two major political parties have managed to eliminate all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all government systems since the 1840's.
  89. ● Tariff of 1842-
    A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level of duties to about where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its cost.

    • ● Transcendentalism -
    • A term associated with a group of new ideas in literature and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to-middle 19th century. The movement developed in the 1830s and 40s as a protest against the general state of culture and society, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among transcendentalists' core beliefs was the belief in an ideal spiritual state that "transcends" the physical and empirical and is realized only through the individual's intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions. Philosophy teaches that truth cannot be found by observation alone, rather it must be possessed by an inner light that can put a person in the highest truth.
  90. ● Transcendentalists -
    Transcendentalists included many brilliant philosophers, writers, poets lecturers and essayists. These included such intellectuals as Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman. They believed in emphasis of the spontaneous and vivid expression of personal feeling over learned analysis. They rejected the philosophies of John Locke, that all knowledge comes from the mind, rather believed that knowledge came from an overall sense of all the senses. This belief laid the ground work for the debate of humanity and the slavery issue.
  91. ● Ralph Waldo Emerson -
    (1803-1882) A well-educated transcendentalist writer and poet who used his talents to furnish the increasing importance of education in the nation. He was a Transcendentalist who believed that knowledge reflected the voice of God, and that truth was inborn and universal. Emerson often went around the nation and visited colleges, commenting on civilization and other philosophies of the U.S. Emerson represents the strengthening of educational efforts of the U.S. between 1800 and 1840.
  92. ● Henry David Thoreau - (
    1817-1862) A close associate of Emerson who was a poet, mystic, a transcendentalist, and a nonconformist. He wrote On Civil Disobedience to defend the right to disobey unjust laws. He was also a Transcendentalist who believed that one could satisfy their material purposes with only a few weeks work each year and have more time to ponder life’s purpose. Thoreau condemned a government that supported slavery, but his individualistic policies revolutionized American philosophies and later influenced people such as Martin Luther King and Gandhi.
  93. \○ Edgar Allen Poe
    (1809-1849)An eccentric genius, who became a gifted lyric poet after a hard childhood and early manhood. He mastered the short story and horror writing, although he’s best known for macabre stories. Author who wrote many poems and short stories including "The Raven," "The Bells," "The Tell-Tale Heart," and "The Gold Bug." He was the originator of the detective story and had a major influence on symbolism and surrealism. Poe quickly became the greatest author the U.S. has ever known, and his significance extends beyond his contributions toward the culture of the United States. Poe, with Melville and Hawthorne saw man as a group of conflicting forces that might not ever be balanced. He changed literature by freeing it from its determination to preach a moral and established the idea that literature should be judged by the positive effect they had on the reader.
  94. ○ Washington Irving
    (1783-1859) Author, diplomat. Wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." He was the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer. Represented America’s coming recognition of education. Irving brought a sense of pride to the nation with his literary accomplishments that also built nationalism and unification within the U.S.
  95. ○ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
    (1807-1882) Professor at Harvard College became one of the most popular poets in America. His works became immensely popular in Europe, like “Evangeline” and “Hiawatha.” Longfellow had a huge impact on the literary prestige of the U.S., as he was an internationally recognized poet. Emphasized the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present.
  96. ○ Walt Whitman
    (1819-1892), Leaves of Grass(1855) was his first volume of poetry. He broke away from the traditional forms and content of New England poetry by describing the life of working Americans and using words like "I reckon", "duds", and "folks". He brought about new ways of writing poetry, such as eliminating stanzas, and poetry about sex with shocking frankness. He loved people and expressed the new democracy of a nation finding itself. Whitman’s poetry also left a transcendentalist view about government, and reflection about the old world. He had radical ideas and abolitionist views - Leaves of Grass was considered immoral.
  97. ○ Nathaniel Hawthorne
    (1804-1864)Another brilliant writer, Hawthorne was born in Massachusetts with an atmosphere heavy with Puritanism, and the tragedy of his father’s premature death. Hawthorne turned to his Puritan past in order to examine the psychological and moral effects of the adultery. He, along with Poe and Melville, wrote with concern for the human mind because of their pessimism about the human condition. Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter won him acclaim, and he also quickly became a renowned author of the Second Great Awakening.
  98. ○ Herman Melville
    (1819-1891) New York resident who wrote charming tales of the sea, including the famous Moby Dick. Drawing ideas and theme from his own experiences in life, Melville wrote with much pessimism. His book, which contains much pessimism, focuses on the human mind instead of the social relationships. He, along with Poe and Hawthorne, were concerned with analyzing the mental states of their characters. Although Melville’s success was not immediate, he also contributed considerably to the writing style of his time.
  99. ● Alexis de Tocqueville – Democracy in America -
    De Tocqueville came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book Democracy in America (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
  100. ● Mormons, Joseph Smith -
    Joseph Smith (1805-1844) founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. Joseph Smith organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after receiving "Sacred writings.”Mormons believe in free will and enterprise. Although they established some controversy in the West, the Mormons continue to practice their religion. The religion grew mostly in Utah, and attracted many settlers to the western state. In 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr. Unpopular because of their polygamy, they moved to Missouri, then to Nauvoo, Illinois. They were then led to the Great Salt Lake by Brigham young after Smith was killed.
  101. ● Dorthea Dix -
    (1802-1887) A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill. Beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. Dix was one of the few people to reach out and help the mentally ill who were once shunned as being “crazy,” as many Americans felt that mental incapability was inherited, not an illness. Her efforts persuaded many state legislatures to set new policies for the mentally challenged and to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
  102. ● Rise of labor leaders -
    During the 1800's, labor unions became more and more common. Their leaders sought to achieve the unions' goals through political actions. Their goals included reduction in the length of the workday, universal education, free land for settlers, and abolition of monopolies. Labor unions were the result of the growth of factories.
  103. ● Commonwealth V Hunt -
    1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members. It ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies in restraint of trade. Although this decision made strikes legal, it did not bring significant changes in the rights of laborers because many Massachusetts judges still considered unions illegal.
  104. ● Oberlin and Mt Holyoke -
    Oberlin: founded in 1833 by a New England Congregationalist at Oberlin, Ohio. First coed facility at the college level. After it was established in 1833, Oberlin College was converted into the center of western abolition by Theodore Dwight Weld. The first to enroll Blacks in 1835. Mt. Holyoke: founded in 1837 in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Founded by Mary Lyon in 1836, Mt Holyoke College in Massachusetts is the oldest U.S. college devoted to women’s education. Became the model for later liberal arts institutions of higher education for women. Liberal colleges.
  105. ● Horace Mann and public education -
    (1796-1859) Graduate of Brown University who campaigned for better schoolhouses and overall education as the secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. As secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models. His influence yielded impressive improvements in the one room schoolhouses, but also paved for more controversy over the right of blacks to have an education.
  106. ● American Temperance Union -
    (1826) Formed in Boston, the society was created in response to the great amounts of alcohol consumption and drunkenness plaguing the U.S. during the Second Great Awakening. The Society implored that drinkers organize children’s clubs, and sign the “temperance pledge.” The society helped to control the devastating effects of alcohol during the 1800’s. It was the flagship of the temperance movement in the 1800's.
  107. ● Women, their rights, and areas of discrimination -
    In the 1800's women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs. Women could not vote and if married, they had no right to own property or retain their own earnings. They were also discriminated in the areas of education and employment, not receiving the opportunities that men possessed. This encouraged the development of educational institutions for women. These areas of discrimination fueled the women’s rights movement.
  108. ● Lucretia Mott -
    • (1803-1880) A Quaker who was one of the major leaders in the oncoming suffrage movements of women during the 1840’s. As an early feminist, she worked constantly with her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women's suffrage. Her home was a station on the underground railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the first women's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Mott became angered when fellow female delegates attended the antislavery convention in London, and
    • were not recognized or listened to.
  109. ● Elizabeth Cady Stanton -
    A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848 and set about seeking suffrage for women in state legislatures. Stanton contributed her power and prestige to strengthen women’s rights. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868 - 1870
  110. ● Catharine Beecher -
    (1800-1878) A daughter of a famous preacher who tirelessly urged women to enter the teaching profession. As men left teaching to work in steady paying factories, many new jobs opened for women in education. Beecher made American women realize that they weren’t just restricted to their houses anymore, but also to the job force. A writer and lecturer, she worked on behalf of household arts and education of the young. She established two schools for women and emphasized better teacher training. She opposed women's suffrage.
  111. ● “Cult of True Womanhood” piety, domesticity, purity, submissiveness -
    While many women were in favor of the women's movement, some were not. Some of these believed in preserving the values of "true womanhood": piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness. These opponents of the women’s movement referred to their ideas as the "Cult of True Womanhood." In the 1840’s, the term was used to express the domestic jobs a women must do after she was married. When the woman was single, she worked under various occupations (maybe as teachers, midwives, etc), but once married, the woman had to stay at home and watch the kids. This “cult” glorified the traditional functions of the homemaker. These women who had been experienced in the labor force now had a more effecting role in the household.
  112. ● Prison reform -
    In some prisons at the time the sane and insane, and children and adults where thrown in together. Dorothy Dix wanted to move the insane from the horrible conditions of the prisons into special hospitals or asylums. Many prison reformers disagreed on the type of prisons that should be used. Most believed that if the patient was put in isolation to reflect and study the Bible they would become good citizens, but most ended up going mad or committing suicide. Generally became the dumping place for society’s outcasts. The prison reform was not as successful as other reforms, but showed the want to restore order in American society by influencing public institutions.

    • ● American Colonization Society -
    • Formed in 1816, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa. It was to rid the country of blacks and not to end slavery and was seen by most as racist. Members were called “colonizationists”. William Lloyd Garrison (publisher of the Liberator), and Frederick Douglas opposed. A few black nationalists such as Martin Delaney advocated emigration, but the majority of blacks did not. It showed the feelings towards blacks at the time. Many believed it was immoral but still held racist beliefs. Led to the division of the abolitionists into colonizationists, gradualists, and immediatists.
  113. ● Cotton gin -
    Made by Eli Whitney. Gin (short for "engine") 1798 - He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton from its seeds. Made short staple cotton much more profitable (made so could clean cotton 50 times as fast). This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South, and led to the spread of slavery.
  114. ● Abolitionism -
    The effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830's to the Civil War. See other relating I.D.s
  115. ● Sectionalism -
    Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West).
  116. ● William Lloyd Garrision -
    An abolitionist, he became editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession. His strong belief in moral suasion and other causes led to a split in the American Anti-slavery Society. He was a very influential abolitionist.
  117. ● The Liberator -
    A abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despite having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrison's strong arguments. Called for immediate and total abolition of slavery.
  118. ● American Anti-slavery Society -
    Formed in 1833 by Garrison and 62 others, a major abolitionist movement in the North. Called for immediate and total abolition of slavery. Split into one group that supported multiple issues (including women’s rights) and use of moral suasion and stayed with Garrison, the other followed James Birney and the Tappans to form the Liberty Party and used political action.
  119. ● The Grimke Sisters -
    Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement. Sarah wrote Letters on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes. They were two main advocators of Women’s rights.
  120. ● Elijah Lovejoy -
    (1802-1837) An abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked four time and Lovejoy was killed defending it. His death was an example of violence against abolitionists.
  121. ● Nat Turner’s Insurrection -
    1831 - Slave uprising. A group of 60 slaves led by Nat Turner, who believed he was a divine instrument sent to free his people, killed 55 Whites in South Hampton, Virginia. Turner’s role may have been exaggerated. This let to a sensational manhunt in which 100 Blacks were killed. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more united in their support of fugitive slave laws.
  122. ● Sojourner Truth -
    Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery. Wrote the famous speech, “Ain’t I a Woman?”
  123. ● Gabriel Prosser -
    A slave, he planned a revolt to make Virginia a state for Blacks. He organized about 1,000 slaves who met outside Richmond the night of August 30, 1800. They had planned to attack the city, but the roads leading to it were flooded. The attack was delayed and a slave owner found out about it. Twenty-five men were hanged, including Gabriel. He thought his revolt would inspire larger events. Some slaves protested in the form of violent revolts. This showed the growing anger against white slaveholders.
  124. ● Denmark Vesey -
    A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started. He thought his revolt would inspire larger events. Some slaves protested in the form of violent revolts. This showed the growing anger against white slaveholders.
  125. ● Frederick Douglass -
    A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star. He would analyze abolitionist policies and not just present facts. This led to a conflict between him and Garrison He believed in political action and joined the Liberty Party and sometimes even supported slave rebellions.
  126. ● “King Cotton” -
    Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!". The cotton gin was fundamental to cotton becoming so necessary to the economy. Slavery became more deeply entrenched in southern life. Cotton was the largest cash crop.
  127. ● Free Soil Party -
    Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory. David Wilmot added an amendment to a appropriations bill that said slavery would not exist in any territories acquired from Mexico. This led to great debates over the Wilmot Proviso because people took sides based on north and south not political parties. Those who supported the party either did so because they thought slavery was wrong or were northern white farmers looking to move westward and did not want competition with southern slaveholders or free blacks looking for land. John C. Calhoun strongly opposed the party. He called the Wilmot Proviso and Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. This showed the tensions between the North and South.
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