DH theory

  1. the strange smell noticed by a pt before a seizure is called:
  2. Gingiva hyperplasia associated with phenytoin medications is caused by:
    Fibroblasts and osteoblasts depositing extracellular matrix
  3. What determines the severity of pheytoin-induced gingival enlargement?
    Amount of biofilm
  4. A pt has an acetone, fruity smelling breath. This is a classic symptom of:
  5. Name 3 symptoms of hypoglycemia:
    • Headaches
    • dizziness
    • hunger
  6. What is contraindicated during emergency management of an epileptic seizure?
    Placing a tongue depressor between teeth
  7. Name 3 things that will trigger a seizure:
    • Alcohol use or withdrawal
    • lack of sleep
    • stress
  8. name 3 possible complications of diabetes:
    • increased susceptibility to infection
    • increased risk for cardiovascular disease
    • increased risk for kidney dysfunction
  9. Your pt with type 1 diabetes has gone into insulin shock. what is the first step in addressing this emergency?
    give pt sucrose - juice or cake frosting
  10. The most common type of cental emergency associated with a person having diabetes is what?
  11. The type of asthma triggered by an increase in pollen and seasonal allergens is known as what?
    allergic, atopic
  12. What should be avoided when using local anesthetics on an asthma patient?
    epinephrine and levonordefrin
  13. What orally inhaled drug is used to treat acute asthma attacks?
  14. Use of oral albuterol inhalers can cause what?
    Dry mouth
  15. What is the first action taken when a person has a syncopal episode?
    Place them in the supine position
  16. Which of the following is not an early pre-syncopal sign?
    a. dizziness
    b. heavy perspiration
    c. nausea
    d. tachycardia
    a. dizziness
  17. Placing a pt in the supine position is the #1 most important action to take for a pt who has fainted. The possibilit of a second syncopal episode is greatest during the post syncopal phase
    both statements are true
  18. neurologic damage can occur in as little as ____________________ if a pt remains in the upright position after fainting.
    2-3 minutes
  19. Name 2 alterations and adaptions to pt treatment to prevent or limit syncope.
    • determine primary precipitating factors
    • eliminate factors
  20. What is the most likely cause of a seizure in the dental office?
    local anesthesia overdose
  21. Name 3 actions involved in managing a seizure
    • Lower the chair and place pt in supine
    • time the seizure
    • let the seizure run its course
  22. It is important to use long acting anesthesia on pts with diabetes to keep them out of pain longer. A diabetic patient should eat breakfast prior to their appointment.
    The first statement is false, and the second is true
  23. Name 3 treatment contraindications in a know asthmatic
    • Aspirin
    • Nitrous oxide (if person is claustrophoic)
    • anesthetics containing bisulfites, epinephrine, or levonordefrin
  24. giving local anesthesia with epinephrine to an asthmatic pt who also has diabetes or high blood pressure may lead to ___________
  25. If your pt's asthma attack is not resolving itself after they have used their inhaler and you have administered O2 what is the next action?
    have a team member call 911
  26. What is the most common emergency in the dental office?
    syncope (fainting)
  27. Name 3 actions to take for a hyperventilating pt.
    • cease treatment
    • place pt in upright position
    • have them breathe deeply into their cupped hands
  28. name 3 symptoms of hyperventilation
    • Rapid deep breathing
    • light headedness
    • rapid pulse
  29. Name 5 oral health problems associated with kidney pt on hemodialysis
    • xerostomia
    • halitosis due to excess urea
    • periodontal disease
    • bone loss/tooth loss
    • mucositis
  30. Kidney disease patients are often take blood thinners which may cause more bleeding during dental treatment. Systemic fluids should be prescribed for pts with kidney disease.
    The first statement is true, and the second statement is false
  31. When giving a kidney disease pt local anesthesia, it is best to give them the (highest/lowest)______________dosage possible
  32. congestive heart failure is a principle complication of virtually all forms of heart disease. Heart failure is more prevalent in women than men.
    the first statement is true and the second statement is false
  33. The purpose of the kidneys is to cleans the urine of toxins. A kidney hemodialysis patient should have dental treatment on the same day as their dialysis.
    Both statements are false
  34. During a medical emergency involving a cardiac pt, the patient should be placed in a supine position. The pt's vital signs should be monitored every 5 minutes
    the first statement is false, and the second statement is true
  35. name 3 treatment adaptions/considerations with a cardiac patient
    • short appointments
    • morning appointments
    • ensure optimum vital signs
  36. When using local anesthetics with a cardiac patient, ___________ should be avoided. The best anesthesia choice is ___________
    • epinephrine (vasoconstrictor)
    • carbocaine
  37. List and briefly define the ASA physical status classifications
    • I - normal, pt can climb a flight of stairs without distress
    • II - pt can climb a flight of stairs without distress, but must stop once they complete the task due to distress
    • III - pt can climb one flight of stairs, but must stop and rest before completing the task
    • IV - pt cannot negotiate a flight of stairs because of shortness of breath or undue fatigue at rest
    • V - pt is moribund and not expected to survive
  38. What is the most dangerous type of stroke?
  39. it is imperative to always check the blood pressure of a patient with a heart condition because _______ is the cause of 75% of all cases of heart failure
  40. If your pt exhibits a spike in systolic blood pressure, they are at risk for which type of stroke?
  41. In a pt with a history of stroke, for every 10 mm Hg over 160 that blood pressure increases, chances for hemorrhagic stroke go up __________
  42. If your patient reports that they have recently had a stroke, dental treatment must be delayed __________ from the date of the reported stroke
    6 months
  43. Name 3 ethnic groups that show a higher risk for stroke
    • African American
    • Hispanics
    • Native Americans
  44. Using low dosage of nitrous oxide is accpetable for a pt with a history of stroke. Epinephrine and certain anti-anxiety agents should be avoided when treating a pt with a history of stroke
    both statements are true
  45. In an emergency, a conscious stroke pt should be placed in the ______ position. An unconscious stroke victim should be placed in the _______ position
    • Upright
    • supine
  46. name a common dental allergen
  47. Name 4 progressive symptoms of an allergic reaction
    • flushing of skin
    • rhinitis
    • hives
    • loss of consciousness/anaphylactic shock
  48. What are the two most important therapeutic agents used in the treatment of anaphylaxis?
    • epinephrine
    • oxygen
  49. If your hypertensive pt has an allergic reaction, what therapeutic agent is contraindicated? What is an alternative treatment for this patient?
    • Epinephrine
    • antihistamine or corticosteroids prior to appointment
  50. Which type of angina emergency would you most likely see in the dental office?
  51. Symptoms of an angina attack may last from _______ to ______ minutes
    1 - 15
  52. If your pt is known to have a pacemaker, ultrasonic scaling is contraindicated. A magnetically-attached headrest should be removed when working with a cardiac pt with a pacemaker
    the first statement is false and the second statement is true
  53. What is the common medication used with angina pectoris patients?
  54. In the SLCC dental hygiene clinic, where is the AED located?
    In the 6-pack on the north wall
  55. cardiac arrest may be mistaken for what?
  56. All are steps in the chain of survival except what?
    a. begin CPR
    b. call 911
    c. give O2
    d. transport to hospital ASAP
    c. give O2
  57. The organism that causes tuberculosis is called what?
    myobacterium tuberculosis
  58. The type of tb where the organism lays dormant within the body and shows no symptoms is called what?
    latent tb
  59. How do health care workers determine if latent tb is present?
    positive tuberculin skin test (TST)
  60. Name 4 modes of transmission of active tb.
    • coughing
    • sneezing
    • singing
    • speaking
  61. What are the 3 major symptoms of active tb?
    • cough that lasts more than 3-4 weeks
    • cough produces blood/sputum
    • chest pain with breathing/coughing
  62. A myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly know as a what?
    Heart attack
  63. Name 4 risks factors for MI
    • age
    • obesity
    • gender
    • stress
  64. name 3 emergencies in which you would place your pt in the supine position
    • syncope (fainting)
    • seizure
    • unconsciousness
  65. How are the symptoms of a heart attack different in women from men?
    Women tend to have chest pain along with shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, neck, back, and jaw pain
  66. In the event of a heart attack, what will help reduce the patients pain?
    nitroglycerin or aspirin
  67. Dental treatment should be avoided at least _______ months following a heart attack
  68. name 3 things that will minimize the risk of a heart attack during dental treatment
    • nitrous oxide
    • supplemental oxygen
    • pain control
    • stress reduction
  69. Name 4 controllable risk factors of hypertension
    • weight
    • activity level
    • diet
    • stress
  70. name 4 possible consequences of a hypertensive crisis
    • stroke
    • heart attack
    • kidney damage
    • memory loss
    • loss of consciousness
    • eye damage
    • blood vessel damage
    • angina
    • fluid in lungs
  71. What type of local anesthesia is indicated for patients with hypertension?
  72. Name 4 contraindications to treatment with a hypertensive patient
    • vasoconstrictors in local anesthesia
    • salt water rinses
    • jet polisher
    • sodium bicarbonate rinses or brushing
  73. What is the most common inherited bleeding disorder?
    Von willebrand's disease
  74. Which common over-the-counter medication can cause thinning of the blood?
  75. Before treating a patient with hemophilia, what should you do?
    have a doctors note confirming treatment can go forward
  76. What does COPD stand for?
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  77. What are the 2 primary diseases which cause COPD?
    • Emphysema
    • chronic bronchitis
  78. If your pt with COPD is having trouble breathing, what can you do to help them?
    • seat them in a comfortable position (usually upright)
    • have them breathe through pursed lips
    • give them low level oxygen
    • have them lean their elbows on their knees while they breathe
  79. Name 2 environmental causes of COPD
    • Smoking (1st or 2nd hand)
    • air pollution
  80. In which chair position should you treat your pt with COPD?
  81. name 3 contraindications when treating the pt with COPD
    • rubber dam use
    • nitrous oxide
    • bilateral mandibular or palatal anesthetics
    • barbiturates
    • antihistamines
    • high levels of O2
  82. Labored breathing is alson know as what?
  83. What is contraindicated for a hyperventilating patient?
    administering oxygen
Card Set
DH theory
Review from Renee