Fractures and Disorders

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  1. Butterfly fx
    • - comminuted fx where bone is broken into 2 fragments on each side of a central fx
    • - caused by high energy force
  2. Transverse Fx
    • - fx across the long axis of the bone at
    • right angle
    • - Mx - direct blow
  3. Oblique Fx
    • - fx is at angle line to long axis
    • - less stable than transverse
    • - Mx- twisting motion
  4. Greenstick fx
    break only on one side of bone
  5. Comminuted fx
    bone broken in more than 2 pieces
  6. Depressed fx
    bone is pushed in as often in skull fxs
  7. Spontaneous fx
    fx occurs without trauma
  8. Stellate fx
    additional fx's radiate from a central fx
  9. Fissure fx
    crack in the surface of the bone that doesn't extend through the bone
  10. Incomplete fx
    doesn't extend all the way through bone
  11. Insufficiency Fx
    stress fx that occurs when bone that is abnormally thin is put under stress
  12. Trophic fx
    results from nutritional deficits
  13. Agenetic fx
    spontaneous fx that results from less than ideal osteogenesis
  14. Buttonhole fx
    projectile causes hole in bone
  15. Capillary fx
    one that appears as a thin line in an x-ray as the bone fragments aren't separated
  16. Chisel fx
    slanted piece of bone is detached from the head of the radius
  17. Direct fx
    occurs at the site of injury
  18. Dyscrasic fx
    occurs due to weakening of bone from disease
  19. Intraperiosteal fx
    doesn't involve a break in the periosteum
  20. Endocrine fx
    fx occurs as result of the bone weakening from an endocrine disorder
  21. Fissure fx
    involves the surface of the bone but not all the way through
  22. Grenade thrower's fx
    fx of humerus caused by the muscular action involved in throwing heavy object
  23. Indirect fx
    one that is some distance from location of injury
  24. Inflammatory fx
    caused by the weakening on bone due to inflamm.
  25. Intracapsular fx
    occurs within joint capsule
  26. Lead Pipe fx
    involves compression of the cortex on one side of bone and crack on the opposite side of bone
  27. Neoplastic fx
    occurs in a bone weakened by malignancy
  28. Neurogenic fx
    occurs in a bone weakened by neurological disorder
  29. Nightstick fx
    fx of ulnar shaft caused by blocking of a downward blow of an object
  30. periarticular fx
    occurs near jt.
  31. Pressure fx
    occurs due to pressure placed on the bone by a tumor
  32. Resecting fx
    fragment of bone is removed by a violent action
  33. Segmental fx
    double fx
  34. Splintered fx
    comminuted fx where the bones are broken into sharp thin pieces.
  35. Subcapital fx
    fx of bone underneath head
  36. Subcutaneous fx
    doesn't penetrate skin
  37. Subperiosteal fx
    break doesn't penetrate periosteum and shape and alignment of bone aren't changed
  38. Supracondylar fx
    involving the lower end of shaft of humerus
  39. Transcondylar fx
    involving the condyles of the humerus in which the fx line crosses the fossae. Fx extends into the jt. capsule
  40. Willow fx
    greenstick fx
  41. Basal fx
    fx at neck of femur near trochanters
  42. Bumper fx
    fx involving one or both of the lower extremities below the knee
  43. Duverney's fx
    fx of ilium
  44. Paratrooper's fx
    fx of the posterior part of the tibial articular margin and/or the malleoli
  45. Segond fx
    fx involving ITB
  46. Shepherd's fx
    fx of the external tubercle of talus
  47. Stieda's fx
    fx of the femur at the internal condyle
  48. Sprinter's fx
    avulsion of anterior superior, or inferior, spine of the ilium
  49. Wagstaffe's fx
    fx with a dislocation of medial malleolus
  50. Burst fx
    body of the vertebrae is crushed all around. Can cause paralysis.
  51. Jefferson fx
    unilateral or bilateral fx of the first cervical vertebrae at the ant. and post. arches. Axial loading injury and is unstable
  52. Ping Pong fx
    • - depression fx of skull
    • - usually occurs in babies and resolves spontaneously
  53. Subcapital fx
    intracapsular fx where neck of femur joins head of femur
  54. Epicondylar fx
    fx of the epicondyles of the distal humerus
  55. Supracondylar fx
    fx locate above the condyles and epicondyles
  56. Transcondylar fx
    transverse fx across the condyles of the humerus or femur
  57. Bennett's fx
    • - oblique fx of base of metacarpal of thumb
    • - Mx - forced abd of thumb
    • - extends to CMC and abd pollucus longus shifts the bone laterally
    • - usually surgical
  58. Rolando's fx
    • - fx/dislocation of 1st metacarpal at the base of bone
    • - comminuted, intra-articular
    • - 3 fragments usually involved form a T or Y
    • - Mx - forceful abd
  59. Barton's fx
    • - intra-articular oblique fx of distal radius involving radiocarpal jt.
    • - comminuted fx
    • - dislocation of radiocarpal jt. and fx line over distal rim of radius
    • - unstable fx
    • - Mx - fall forward on extended hand
  60. Reverse Barton's fx
    • - just like Barton's except fx runs on volar rim of distal radius
    • - usually surgical
  61. Chauffeur's fx (Hutchinson's fx)
    • - intra-articular oblique fx of radial styloid process
    • - can cause lunate dislocation
    • - Mx - forceful ulnar deviation and supination of wrist
    • - casting or fixation
  62. Buckle fx
    • - incomplete fx where cortex of bone is compressed causing a buckle on the compressed side. The other side of bone is undamaged
    • - Mx - fall on outstretched arm
    • - can be classic or angled
    • - non surgical - casting
  63. Boxer's fx
    • - fx of fifth metacarpal
    • - Mx - punching object
    • - loss of knuckle in fifth metacarpal
    • - usually surgical
  64. Colles fx
    • - fx of distal metaphysis of radius in which the fx fragment is displaced dorsally
    • - may cause ulnar styloid fx
    • - Mx- forced dorsiflexion of wrist
  65. Smith's fx
    • - reverse Colle's fx
    • - transverse fx of distal radius
    • - volar displacement
    • - Mx- fall forward on flexed wrists
  66. Mallet fx
    • - occurs with mallet finger - extensor injury
    • - avulsion fx causing finger to drop
    • - Mx- forceful hyperext
  67. Monteggia fx
    • - fx of proximal ulna with dislocated radial head within elbow jt.
    • - 2 types - extension and flexion
    • - Mx - forces through hand/forearm with elbow bent
    • - radius is pulled away from joint by interosseous lig.
    • - usually surgical
  68. Galeazzi's fx
    • - reverse Monteggia fx
    • - fx/dislocation of shaft of radius b/w middle and distal thirds and dorsal dislocation of inf. radioulnar jt.
    • - Mx - direct blow to dorsal wrist or fall on outstretched arm
    • - usually surgical
  69. Tuft fx
    • - fx of distal phalanx (finger tip)
    • - can be open or closed
    • - usually causes nail bed damage
    • - Mx- blunt trauma or crushing
  70. Quervain's fx
    - fx of navicular with volar dislocation of lunate
  71. Moore's fx
    fx of distal portion of radius with dislocation of ulnar head and entrapment of styloid process
  72. Skillern's fx
    complete fx through bottom third of radius with greenstick fx at bottom third of ulna
  73. Wilson's fx
    avulsion fx at site of proximal interphalangeal jt.
  74. Pott's fx
    • - fx/dislocation of ankle
    • - fx of fibula about ankle jt and fx of medial malleolus
    • - internal lig. rupture
    • - foot displaced laterally
  75. Gosselin's fx
    - v-shaped fx of the distal tibia which extends to ankle jt
  76. Maisonneuve fx
    • - spiral fx of proximal third of fibula
    • - disruption of distal tibiofib. syndesmosis
    • - fx of tibia and deltoid tear also may occur
  77. Pilon fx
    • - comminuted fx of distal end of tibia
    • - oblique fx and extends medially and laterally to tibiofibular jt.
    • - impact injury caused by axial loading caused by talus driving into tibial platue
  78. Tillaux Fx
    • - avulsion fx of anterial lateral margin of distal end of tibia
    • -twisting injury
    • - ant. tibiofib pulls away from tibia
    • - Salter harris II fx
  79. Triplane fx
    • - fx of the epiphysis,physis and metaphysis of distal tibia
    • - vertical, transverse and coronal
    • - Mx- twisting
    • - Salter IV fx
  80. Trimalleolar fx
    • - fx of medial and lateral malleoli of tibia and post. process of tibia
    • - surgical and non weight bearing
  81. Jones fx
    • - fx of base of fifth
    • - dec. blood flow
  82. LeFort Fx
    • - transverse fx of maxillae
    • - 3 types
    • - Type I - transverse fx through alveolar process of maxilla
    • - Type II - bilat/unilat. fx of maxilla
    • - Type III - complete separation of maxilla
  83. Salter Harris Fractures
    • - fx of growth plate
    • - Types I - epiphysis is separated from metaphysis
    • - Type II - partial sep. of epiphysis and physis from metaphysis
    • - Type III - distal portion of tibia
    • - Type IV - distal protion of humerus
    • - Type V - crushing fx of physis
  84. Peterson Classification
    • - Newer classifications of Salter Harris
    • - Adds Type VI - epiphysis,physis and metaphysis is removed from site
    • - MX - gunshot or heavy machinery
  85. Inter-trochanteric fx
    • - fx b/w greater and lesser trochanters of femur
    • - fx of cancellouse bone so heals well
  86. Tibial Plateu Fx
    • - MX- car impact, twisting or lateral forces to bone
    • - 6 types
  87. Pipkin Classification
    • - used in describing fx of femoral head
    • - 4 types
  88. Garden Classification
    • - fx of the femoral neck
    • - Type I - incomplete fx
    • - Type II - complete/nondisplaced
    • - Type III - complete w/ partial displacement
    • - Type IV - complete fx w/ complete displacement
  89. Danis Weber Classification
    • - describes ankle fx
    • - Type A - fx is below syndesmosis
    • - Type B - at jt. level with syndesmosis
    • - Type C - above sysndesmosis
  90. Gustilo and Anderson Classification
    • - types of open fx
    • - Type I - fx with open wound less than 1cm
    • - Type II - open fx with wound greater than 1cm
    • - Type III - fx with wound greater than 1cm and extensive soft tissue damage
  91. Boutonniere Deformity
    - injury to the central slip of the ext. mech. of PIP jt.
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Fractures and Disorders
Fractures and Disorders
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