PBL test 3 riddle.txt

  1. Zones of the spleen
    • red pulp; macorphages
    • white pulp; B cells in the follicles, T cells in the pariarterial lymphoid sheaths
  2. spleenic contracton
    • in response to catacohlamines
    • Helps to add volume to the system in case of shock, releases stored RBCs and PLTs
    • The capsule contracts, myofibroblasts
  3. PALs
    • mostly B lymphocytes surrounded by T
    • Surround the central artery
  4. Flow through the speen
    • trabecular artery
    • central artery
    • penicillar arteriol
    • open into red pulp
    • splenic sinus
    • trabecular vein
  5. Macrophage activation in the spleen
    • nonspecific; recognize morpholocial and biological changes in RBCs
    • specific; opsinization with IgG
  6. Glucocerebroside
    • Sphingosine attached to a glucose
    • Sphingosine is a ceramide with a fatty acid
  7. Two types of gouchers
    • 1. non neuro
    • 2. neuro
  8. What is an alpha keto acid
    • Intermediate in AA synthesis
    • oxaloacetate
  9. What gives the goucher cells the tissue paper look
    periodic acid shift positive material accumulate in fibrils
  10. Hyper spleenism
    inlarged spleen prematurely removes RBC, WBS, and platelets
  11. B-glucocerebrocidase
    acts on Beta 1,4 bonds
  12. Renin
    secreted by the JG cells and causes the activation of angiotensinogen
  13. Where is ACE secreted from
    Pulmonary endothelial cells
  14. Two function of ACE
    • convert angiotensin 1 to 2
    • degrade badykinin
  15. Alglucerase
    Modified form of human B-glucocerebrosidace
  16. Moro reflex
    the infant startle reflex
  17. Babinski sign
    • near reflex on that the big toe does when the foot is stimulated
    • Baby will be positive until nervous system is fully militated
    • positive sign in an assault shows nervous system damage, in the pyramidal tract
  18. What part of the kidney does aldosterone work on
    • distal convoluted tubules
    • principle cells, Na/K
    • enterocytes, Na/H
  19. Two function of 21 hydroxyls
    • progesterone to 11-deoxycoticosterone
    • 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol
  20. without 17 hydroxyls
    only the aldosterone pathway would be active
  21. Granulosa cells
    • respond to FSH and convert androgens to estrogen
    • theca internal secrete androgens in response to LH
  22. DHEA synthesis
    adrenal glands
  23. Vitamin D synthesis
    • steroid precurser
    • calcitrol most active for of Vit D
    • begins in the liver and ends in the kidney
    • Cholecalcitrol is formed by the skin and needs UV light
    • 7 dehydrocholesterol to cholecalciferal (skin) to hydroxycholecalciferol (liver) to dihydrocycholecalciferol (kidney)
  24. ACTH
    released by the anterior pituitary under control form the Hypothalmus (CRF paraventricular nucleus), Binds to the adrenal cortex and stimulated cAMP, this activates protein kinase A and activated cholesterol dismutase
  25. Enfamil
    based on human milk, undigested proteins and fats
  26. anemia of chronic disease
    • low serene iron and reduced iron binding capacity with abundant iron stores. Hepcidin is released by the liver in response to IL1 and TNF, this inhibits iron release
    • TNF and IL1 also inhibit the release of erythropoietin
  27. Cornyobacteria
    gram positive
  28. psedamonus ariganosa
    gram negative, common in neutropenic patients
  29. alginate
    • secreted by pseudomoas aeruginosa
    • absorbs water quickly
  30. Lung damage in CF
    • viscid mucus causes the bronchioles to become hyperplascia and hypertrophy.
    • The bacteria can for abcesses
  31. CF modifier locus
    influences the severity of CF
  32. Albuteral
    • bronco dilator
    • relaxes smooth muscle
  33. Ceftriaxone
    • broad spectrum antibiotic
    • affective against pneumonia and staphylococcus auras
  34. cAMP
    turns on protein kinase A that phosphorilates the CFTR R domain
  35. CFTR on bicarb
    • CFTR can regulate the secretion of bicarb
    • normal alkaline secretion ran now acidic
  36. Classes of CF
    • synthesis
    • folding/transport
    • regulation, normal abundance of defective channels
    • in efficient
    • not enough receptors
    • cant control other channels
  37. liver involvment in CF
    bile canuliculi are plugged causing portal inflammation
  38. CF male infertility
    bilateral absence of vas deferens
  39. S3
    • protodiastolic gallop
    • LV filling
    • not heard till halfway through diastole
  40. S4
    • presystolic gallop
    • blood being forced into the ventricle by atrial contraction
  41. vocal fremitus
    vibration felt over the chest when a person talks
  42. creatine
    • produced by the live and used as energy by the muscle
    • CPK, transfers a phosphate from ATP to creatine to create phosphocreatine
    • phosphocreatine is used as energy and its byproduct is creatinine
  43. creatinine
    a marker used to estimate the muscle mass of an individual
  44. bleb
    • large blister
    • collection of air in the cells of the visceral pleura
  45. carina
  46. position of the trachea
    • it is anterior to the esophagus
    • the sac aorta is anterior to it and then arches over the left bronchi and descends posterior to it
    • right bronchi is ppsterior to pulmonary artery in root and left brooch is lower then pulmonary artery in left root
  47. mean pulmonary arterial pressure
  48. length of time blood is in the capillaries
    • 0.8 seconds
    • can be as short as .3 during exercise
  49. Enoxyparin
    • low weight heparin that is broken down quicker and is less potent
    • given during pregnancy because it does not cross the pacenta
  50. Fundaparinux
    enhances AT3 binding to factor X
  51. Risk factors for DVT
    • endothelial injury
    • stasis
    • hypercoagulable
  52. paradoxial thromboemboli
    venous embolus that crosses a heart defect into the arterial system
  53. What causes thirst in shock
    sympathetic reflexes
  54. Things that raise PT time
    • liver disease
    • hereditary factor dificiency
    • Vit K deficiency
    • bile duct abstraction; vit k is fat soluble
    • coumarin
    • DIC
    • blood transfusion
    • saicylate intoxication
  55. What time is used to monitor heparin therapy
  56. lactated ringers
    • isotonic with blood
    • has calcium in it
  57. gentamicin
    antibiotic used to treat gram negative infection
  58. clindamycin
    • used against anaerobic bacteria
    • methacyclin resistant staphlococcus areas
  59. peritoneal organ placement
    • retro; kidneys, aorta, adrenals , asc and dec colon, pancrease
    • inter; stomach, spleen, transverse colon, liver, tail of pancrease
  60. kidney innervation
    renal plexus from the celiac plexus,least splancnic nerve
  61. kidney placement
    • left is T12-L3
    • right it slightly higher
  62. Ampacillin
    • gram neg and pos
    • broad spectrum
  63. metronidazole
    anerobic bacteria
  64. ranitidine
    • histamine H2 receptor antiganist
    • blocks the stimulation of HCL from parietal cells in the stomach.
    • acid would cause irritation to the already damaged mucosa
  65. meperidine
    • demerol
    • interacts with sodium ion channels to block pain
  66. hydrocodone
    opiode derivative
  67. cephalexin
    • used as a replacement for PCN
    • used for UTI and respiratory infections
  68. brainbridge reflex
    • increase in venous pressure and return increases heart rate
    • stretch receipts in the atria
  69. Acidosis during shock
    poor delivery of oxygen leads to increased anaerobic metabolism and increased production of lactic acid
Card Set
PBL test 3 riddle.txt
Test 3 riddlers