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Where does light dependent reactions occur?
- (dark reaction, Calvin cycle)
What occurs in photosystem I?
Donation of energized electrons to electron carriers in the thylakoid.
What occurs in photosystem II?
Oxidize water and donate electrons to electron carries that reduce photosystem I
What is the stroma?
The inner space of the chloroplast
What is the thlyakoid?
A membrane in the chlorplast
What is the difference between unsaturated and saturated fat?
- Unsaturated- has double bonds
- Saturated- no double bonds
What is the difference between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats?
- mono- 1 double bond
- poly- multiple double bonds
What is the difference between a essential and nonessential fatty acid?
- Essential- obtained through diet
- Nonessential- made by the body
What is an ester?
Formed by reactions between an acid and an alcohol with elimination of water
What is the difference between a glycolipid and sphingolipid?
- glyco- no phosphate
- sphingo- have phophate
What is an isoprenoid?
repeating 5 carbon unit
What is a terpene and a monoterpene?
- 5 repeating carbon from plants
- 2 five repeating carbons
What are the 4 classes of lipoproteins?
- Chylomycrons - very large and low density, transport intestine to adipose
- VLDL- transport lipids to tissues
- LDL- carry cholesterol to tissue
- HLD - scavenge excess cholesterol esters
What is passive transport?
- requires no energy
- Simple and facilitated diffusion
What is the difference of simple and facilitated diffusion?
- simple- no carrier
- facilitated- has protein carrier
What does active transport require?
What is a ketone?
Results of excess acetyl-CoA
What does bile (made in the liver) do?
What is photophosphorlation?
Making ATP in the presence of light
What is photorespiration?
use of Oxygen instead of CO2
What is a compensation point?
rates of CO2 fixation and release are equal
What is nitrogen fixation?
Nitrogen gas being converted into a form usable by plants
What is kwashiorkor?
Prolonged protein deficiency
What is transamination?
converting alpha amino acid to alpha keto acid
What is an alkaloid?
Nitrogen containing chemical found in plants
What is a monomer?
a simple compound that combine to make a polymer
What is a nucleotide?
DNA or RNA monomer unit
What is a nucleoside?
Nucleotide without phosphate
What is the difference between a pyrimidine and a purine?
- Pyrimidine- 1 nitrogen base
- Purine- 2 nitrogen base
What is difference between ammotontelic, Ureotelic, and Uricotelic?
- Ammotontelic- released in the sea
- Ureotelic- converted to urea (mammals)
- Uricotelic- coverted to uric acid
What is the difference between ketogenic and glucogenic?
- AA is degraded to
- (keto) acetyl-CoA or acetoacetyl-CoA
- (gluco) pyruvate or a TCA cycle
What is phenyketoneuria (PKU) result in?
over accumulation of phenylaline
What is alkaptoneuria a result of?
deficiency in homogentisate oxidase
What is albinism a result of?
lack of tyrosinase, thus melanin is not produced
What is the function of the small intestine?
digestion of nutrients so they are small enough to be absorbed
What is the liver play a key role in?
Carbohydrates, lipids, and AA metabolism
What is the function of the adipose tissue?
storage of energy in the form of TAGs
What is the function of the brain?
Directs most metabolic activity
What is the function of the kidney?
Filtration of blood plasma
What is chromatin?
Partially decondensed chromosomes
What is B, A and Z form DNA?
- B- Right handed, Most common, Longest
- A- right handed
- Z- left handed
What did Watson and Crick discover in 1953?
What are the 4 types of Xenobiotics?
- Base analogues- transition mutation
- Alkylating agents- liable to alkalation
- Nonalkylating agents- deaminates bases, mutagenic and prevent base pairing
- Intercalating agents- Frame shift mutation
What is the difference between transversion and transition mutation?
- Transistion is purine to purine or pyrimindine to pyrimindine.
- Transversion is purine to pyrimindine
What is a centromere?
AT rich, forms kinetochore which interacts with spindles fibers during cell division
What is a telomere?
CCCA repeats at the end of DNA that postpone loss of coding on replication
What is the difference in size of a bacteria genome and the human genome?
- Human- billions of bases
- Bacteria- millions of bases