1. Test Anxiety
    refers to a combination of a psychological, emotional and cognitive components that are caused by the stress of taking exams and may interfere with one's concentration, planning and academic performance
  2. Goals of Psychology
    • 1. Describe
    • 2. Explain
    • 3. Predict
    • 4. Control
  3. How Psychologists answer question
    • 1. Biological Approach
    • 2. Cognitive Approach
    • 3. Behavioral Approach
    • 4. Psychoanalytic Approach
    • 5. Humanistic Approach
    • 6. Cross Cultural Approach
    • 7. Evolutionary Approach
  4. Biological Approach
    focuses on how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with our environments to influence learning what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe, and feel.
  5. Cognitive Approach
    how we process, store and use information how it influences
  6. Behavioral Approach
    how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones
  7. Psychoanalytic Approach
    • the influence of unconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thoughts, behaviors, and the developments of personality traits and psychological problems
    • (Ex. Freud)
  8. Humanistic Approach
    each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future
  9. Cross-Cultural Approach
    influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on the psychological and social functioning of a culture's members. (ex. Suicide Bombers)
  10. Evolutionary Approach
    how evolutionary ideas such as adaptation and natural selection explain human behavior and mental processes
  11. Procrastination
    refers to the tendency to always put off completing a task to the point of feeling anxious or uncomfortable about one's delay (20% of adults, and 80-95% students)
  12. Cross-Cultural Approach
    Eclectic Approach
    • which means they use different approaches to study the same behavior
    • By combining information from the biological, cognitive, behavioral, psychoanalytic, humanistic, cross-cultural, and evolutionary approaches, psychologists stand a better chance of reaching their goals of describing, explaining, predicting and controlling behavior
  13. Wilhem Wundt (1832-1920)
    Structuralism and Introspection
  14. William James (1842-1910)
  15. Max Wertheimer (1883-1943)
    Gestalt Approach
  16. John B. Watson (1878-1958)
    Behavioral Approach
  17. Structuralism
    was the study of the most basic elements, primarily sensations and perceptions, that make up our conscious mental experiences
  18. Introspection
    a method of exploring conscious mental processes by asking subjects to look inward and report their sensations and perceptions
  19. Gestalt approach
    emphasized that perception is more than the sum of its parts and studied how sensations are assembled into meaningful perceptual experiences
  20. Behavioral Approach
    emphasized the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors
  21. Psychologist
    usually someone who has completed 4 to 5 years postgraduate education and has obtained a PhD, PsyD, or EdD in psychology.
  22. Clinical Psychologist
    has a PhD, PsyD, or EdD, has a specialized in clinical subarea, and has spent an additional year in a supervised therapy setting to gain experience in diagnosing and treating a wide range of abnormal behaviors
  23. Psychiatrist
    a medical doctor (MD) who has spent several years in clinical training, which includes diagnosing possible physical and neurological causes of abnormal behaviors and treating these behaviors, often with prescription drugs
  24. Areas of Specialization
    • Clinical/Counseling- (treatment of people)
    • Social- (social interactions, stereotypes, prejudies)
    • Developmental- (examines moral, social, and cognitive development
    • Experimental- (areas of sensation, learning, human performance)
    • Biological- (research of physical and chemical changes that occur during stress, learning and emotions)
    • Cognitive- (how we process, store, and retrieve information)
    • Psychometrics- ( focus on measurement of people's abilities, skills, intelligence, personality, and abnormal behaviors)
    • Industrial/Organizational-(examines the relationship of people and their work environments)
Card Set
Psych Flash Cards