Final Exam chp 1 - 23

  1. Function of Nucleus:
    Control center of the cell: responsible for transmitting genetic information and providing instructions for protein synthesis.
  2. Function of Microtubules:
    Support the cell and give it shape. Form Centrioles.
  3. Funtion of Mitochondria:
    Site of ATP synthesis; powerhouse of the cell.
  4. Function of Lysosomes:
    Sites of intracellular digestion.
  5. Function of Golgi apparatus:
    Packages, modifies and segregates proteins for secretion from the cell, inclusion in lusosomes and incorporation into the plasma membrane. Macromolecules.
  6. Function of Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:
    • Site of lipid and steroid synthesis, lipid metabolism and drug detoxification.
    • Synthesizes Lipids and steroids.
  7. Function of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:
    • Makes proteins that are secreted from the cell; makes the cell's membranes.
    • Synthesizes proteins.
  8. Function of Cell Membrane:
    Controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. It consists of the phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
  9. Where is the Cephalic region?
    The head.
  10. Where is the Cervical Region?
    The Neck
  11. Where is the Axillary region?
  12. Where is the Brachial region?
    Upper Inner Arm.
  13. Where is the pectoral region?
  14. Where is the Inguinal region?
    Groin or the lower lateral regions of the abdomen.
  15. Where is the Lumbar region?
    Lower spine
  16. Define the following terms:
    • Diffusion: describes the spread of particles through motion from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration.
    • Osmosis: movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water potential (low solute concentration) to an area of low water potential (high solute concentration).
    • Mitosis: is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets in two nuclei.
  17. What is tissue?
    Tissues are groups of related cells working together in cell communities for a common funtion along with extracellular material.
  18. What are the 4 basic tissues?
    • 1) Epithelial tissue
    • 2) Connective tissue
    • 3) Muscle tissue
    • 4) Nervous Tissue
  19. Name a major location of Simple Squamous Epithelium:
    Air sacs of lungs.
  20. Name a major location of Simple Cuboidal Eptihelium:
    Kidney Tubules
  21. Name a major location of Simple Columnar Epithelium:
    • Nonciliated type lines most of digestive tract.
    • Ciliated lines uterine tubes.
  22. Name a major location of Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium, Ciliated:
    Ciliated types lines the trachea.
  23. Name a major location of Transitional Epithelium:
  24. Name a major location of Stratified Squamous Epithelium:
    Keratinized type forms the epidermis of the skin

    Nonkeratinized type forms esophagus, mouth and vagina.
  25. Name a location and funtion of Loose Connective Tissue proper:
    • Location: Areolar CT underlies almost all epithelia of the body. Cushions organs.
    • Function: Support, holding body fluids, defense, storing nutrients.
  26. Name a location and funtion of Dense Irregular Connective Tissue proper:
    • Location: Dermis of skin
    • Function: Able to withstand tension; provides strength
  27. Name a location and funtion of Dense Regular Connective Tissue proper:
    • Location: Tendons & ligaments
    • Function: Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles, withstands great stress.
  28. Name a location of Hyaline cartilage:
    Location: Ends of long bones
  29. What are three types of Mucle Tissue:
    • 1) Skeletal (Voluntary)
    • 2) Smooth (Involuntary)
    • 3) Cardiac (Involuntary)
  30. What cells are the functional cells of nervous tissue?
  31. What are the supporting cells of Nervous Tissue:
    Neuroglia or Glia cells.
  32. What type of tissue makes up the hypodermis:
    Areolar connective tissue and adipose.
  33. How are exocrine glands different from endocrine glands?
    • Endocrine glands do not have ducts.
    • Exocrine glands have ducts that carry their secretions to specific locations.
  34. What is the function of an Osteocyte:
    Osteocytes are mature bone cells.
  35. What is the function of an Osteoblast?
    Bone deposition. A cell that makes bone. It does so by producing a matrix that then becomes mineralized.
  36. What is an Osteoclast's funtion?
    Bone resorption. They crawl along bone surfaces and dig pits as they break down the bone tissue.
  37. What is a chondroblast's funtion?
    Is an immature cartilage-producing cell.
  38. Define Periosteum:
    Periosteum is a membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones.
  39. Define Compact Bone:
    External layer that is dense, smooth and solid.
  40. Define Spongy bone:
    Internal bone layer that is a honeybomb of small needly like trabeculae that are filled with bone marrow.
  41. Define Marrow Cavity:
    The very center of a bone that contains no bone tissue at all. Filled with yellow bone marrow.
  42. Define Red Bone Marrow:
    Is flexible tissue found in the interior of bones. Forms red blood cells.
  43. Define Epipyseal plate:
    AKA growth plate; a hyaline cartilage plate.The plate is found in children and adolescents; in adults, who have stopped growing, the plate is replaced by an epiphyseal line.
  44. Define Ossification:
    Is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.
  45. Define Tendon:
    Connects muscle to bone, Fibrous connective tissue.
  46. Define Ligament:
    Fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones
  47. Which bones undergo intramembranous ossification?
    • Membrane bones form directly from mesenchyme without first being modeled in cartilage.
    • All bones of skull
    • Clavicles
  48. Which bones undergo endochondral ossification?
    • All bones from the base of the skull down (minus clavicles).
    • First modeled in hyaline cartilage, the gradually replaced by bone tissue.
Card Set
Final Exam chp 1 - 23
Final Exam chp 1 - 23