What does Mesozioc mean?
What tome period was the Mesozioc?
251 to 65.5 mya
What 3 periods make up the Mesozioc?
- Triassic, Oldest,
- Jrassic, Middle
- Cretaceous, Youngest
How long did the Mesozoic last?
What did the Mesozoic end with?
An extinction event
Where was the Tethys sea during the Paleozoic?
- Between Africa amd Europe
- Between India and Aisa
In the Mesozoic Pangea began to break up into what two land masses?
How did Laurasia break up?
Laurentia (North America) and Baltica (Europe)
How many stages did the Laurasia breakup occur in?
What Orogeny caused the Appalachians to rise during the Triassic Period?
The Appalachians had been elevated during the Late Paleozoic Alleghanian Orogeny.
Due to erosion of the Appalachian, what was formed at the basins between the mountains?
Coarse Clastic Sediments- lowland areas during the Triassic
Late Triassic and Early Jurassic sedimentary and volcanic rocks
When did Fault-bounded rift basins developed in eastern North America, extending from Nova Scotia in the north to Georgia in the south
During the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic
Describe the sediments in the Newark basins
1- Alluvial fans
- 2- Rivers and floodplains
3- Lakes (lacustrine)
4- Deserts (aeolian or eolian)
Where dinosaur bones found in the Newark Basins
Yes, tracks as well
Also, fish, aquatic reptiles and freshwater invertabrae
What sedimentary rocks are associated with the Newark Basins?
red arkosic sandstone, siltstones, and shales.
What was characteristic of the Connecticut Valley during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic?
- Four stages
- 1. Alleghanian orogeny.
- 2. Triassic sedimentation begins (yellow).
- 3. basaltic sills and dikes
- 4. Early Jurassic-Palisades orogeny
What was characteristic of Western North America during the Triassic?
- 1. A western belt of volcanic rocks and graywackes
- 2. An eastern belt of shallow marine sandstones and limestones
- 3. farther eastward, non-marine, continental red beds
Upper Triassic continental deposits (fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian)
- 1. Moenkopi Formation (red siltstone and shale with a meandering river system
- 2. Shinarump Conglomerate member of the Chinle Formation (conglomerate deposited in
- river channels)
- 3. Chinle Formation or Group (shale, silty shale, sandstone and volcanic ash deposited in meandering channels, stream valleys and lakes)
Lower Jurassic continental deposits
- 1. Wingate Sandstone (cross-bedded sandstone deposited in sand dunes by wind)
- 2. Kayenta Formation (shales and sandstones deposited in stream valleys and lakes, with dinosaur tracks)
Middle Jurassic continental deposits
- Navajo Sandstone (cross-bedded sandstone
- deposited in sand dunes by wind)
How large was the Appalachian mountains during the Jurassic compared to the Triassic
What was deposited during the Late Triassic and Jurassic in the Gulf of Mexico area.
Describe the Gulf of Mexico during late Triassic.
Thick beds of gypsum and salt, more than 1000 m thick, were deposited, indicating an arid climate.
Was a evaporating basin with seawater from Atlantic Ocean
Describe Louann Salt.
the thick salt beds, formed salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico area.
Why are Salt domes important economically?
- Salt domes are major oil and gas traps. because
- oil and natural gas float on water it push the domes up.
What is Characteristic of Western North America during the Jurassic?
- 1. seas transgressed and regressed during the Jurassic
- 2. Limestones and evaporites were deposited in shallow
- 3. coastal dune environment
What is characteristic of West-Central North America during the middle Jurassic?
- 1. bones of marine reptiles are found in the sandstones
- and siltstones of the Sundance Formation, deposited in the Sundance Sea.
- 2. Jurassic Morrison Formation
- 3. The bones of more than 70 species of dinosaurs have been found in
- the Morrison Formation
Describe characteristics of Accretionary Tectonics
Volcanic arcs, fragments of distant continents have been forced over the W. N. America plate (obduction) and now incorporated into the Cordilleran belt
50 exotic terranes
When was Subduction zone active in the Western N. America?
During the Mesozoic
Compare Obduction with subduction
Obduction is above ground and subduction is underground
What does terranes mean?
- 1. A series of related rock formations.
- 2. An area having a preponderance of a particular rock or rock groups.
When did the Sonoma Orogeny form?
Triassic Period- Volcanic arc colliding with N. America Pacific Margin
Describe Nevadan Orogeny and when was in formed?
- Subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath the Western N. America plate resulted in eastward shifting phases of
- deformation (folding, faulting, metamorphism)
during the Jurassic
Sierra Nevada, Idaho and Coast Range Batholithis formed from what and when?
granite batholiths during the Jurassic and Cretaceous
Describe characteristics of Sevier Orogeny
- Nevada-Utah regions): Strata were sheared from
- underlying Precambrian rocks and broken along parallel planes of weakness to form multiple angle thrust faults, like overlapping roof tiles.
Deformational events shifted eastward (New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming)
Most of the structure in the Rocky mountains resulted from the Laramide Orogeny
- Characteristics structures include: monoclines,
Foreland basin of N. America western interior
interior extends from the Arctic to the gulf of Mexico. In place its over 1600 km wide. Many rock formations in the basin yield commercial quantities of Oil, natural gas and Coal
- mountain belt extend from Gibraltar (west of Mediterranean sea across s. Europe and Asia
- to the Pacific ocean)
- were laid down in the ancient Tethy sea
What sea traces back to the Paleozoic
What experienced extensive marine transgression during the Late Cretaceous time
South America split from Africa during what period?
The Name andesite is associated with what
Where is the Karoo Basin
In southern Africa
What moved steadily northward to Laurasia By Cretaceous time
Mineral and Energy Resources of the Mesozoic
- Gold- California
- Copper, silver and zinc- Idaho
- Diamonds- Siberia and Africa
- Salt and sulfur- Gulf of Mexico
Uranium-bearing rocks are found in New
Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming and Texas; mined from what?
Triassic and Jurassic sedimentary rocks
Supergroup rift basins in North Carolina and Virginia associated with what?
The largest oil and gas deposits in the world are where and from what?
Middle East and North Africa
From Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks