CHAPTER 8 study guide

  1. what is homeostasis?
    condition in which the bodies internal enviroment remains relatively constant
  2. what things are maintained by homeostasis
    • concentration of O2, water nutrients, ions in blood
    • optimial temp and osmotic pressure
  3. what 2 systems control homeostasis
    • nervous
    • endocrine
  4. what happends if homeostasis is disturbed
    • sick
    • die
  5. what are the 2 main parts of the nervous system
    • CNS (central nervous system)
    • PNS (peripheral nervous system)
  6. what does the CNS consist of?
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  7. what does the PNS consist of
    nerves that connect brain and spinal cord with recptors or effectors
  8. what is the basic function of CNS
    control center
  9. what is the basic function of PNS
    connects CNS to recptors and effectors that send info back and forth
  10. what are examples of recptors
    • pain
    • touch
    • light
    • sound
  11. all recptors send their info where?
  12. what are examples of effectors
    muscles and glands
  13. effectors recieve their info from where
  14. what is neurology?
    branch of medicine that deals with the normal functing and disorders of the nervous system
  15. distinguish between neurons and neuroglial cells and describe the basic functions of each
    • neurons= cell body, dentrites, axon, transmits info within nervous system
    • neurogilal cells= smaller, attached neurons to other tissues, produce myelin sheaths, protect neurons
  16. what are some specific functions of nueroglial cells?
    protect, support, fight microbes and maintain nuerons
  17. what is a myelin sheath made out of and what is its function
    • insulates nueron
    • speeds up signal
  18. what are the 3 main parts of a neuron and describe aprearence
    • cell body= expanding part containing normal organelles
    • dendtrites= branched extendions of cytoplasm, recieves and conducts impulses
    • axon= single long, thin, cytoplasmic, recieves and conducts impulses away from cell body to next nueron or body tissue
  19. what is a nerve fiber
    axon bundles
  20. difference between gray and white matter
    • white matter= myelinated
    • grey= not myelinated
  21. what are the functional classifications of neurons? give name and description of each
    • sensory nuerons= recieve info from recptors and transmit info to CNS
    • associative nuerons= transmit info from sensory to motor nuerons= transmit info from associative neurons to effectors
  22. reaction time
    the between detecting change and responding to it
  23. eletric potential
    separation of diff charges
  24. resting state
    not passing impulse, has polarity and maintains it
  25. polarity
    • two poles
    • ones positive, ones negative
  26. depolarized
    change in polarity when neg and pos switch
  27. repolarization
    • goes back to origional polarity
    • negative on outside positive on inside
  28. nerve impulse
    depolarized portion
  29. excitability
    ability to change polarity
  30. refractory period
    cant be polarized
  31. what is a threshold stimulus
    minimum stimulus necessary to get nerve to send impulse
  32. what is the all-or-none principle
    once you have sufficent stimulus, the strength or level of the impulse does not vary
  33. in what 2 ways are differences in the intestines of stimuli detected
    • change in frequency of impulses
    • change in # of nuerons transmitting impulse
  34. what factors affect the speed of an impulse
    • myelinated vs unmyelinated
    • quicker slower
  35. whats is a neurotransmitter give most common one
    • substance released by synaptic end bulb and diffuses across the synapse to combine with recptor sites on the ajacent dentrite
    • ascito coline
  36. ganglia
    collection of cell bodies of neurons
  37. tracts
    collections of axons within the CNS
  38. what are the 2 parts of the nervous system
    CNS and PNS
  39. what are the 2 parts of the CNS
    brain and spinal cord
  40. what is a cylindrical rod like structure this is continuous with the brain?
    spinal cord
  41. describe the general structure of the spinal cord
    • coninuous w/ medulla oblongata
    • things that branch off are nerves
  42. spinal cord DIRECTLY ATTACHES to what part of the brain?
    medulla oblongata
  43. the spinal cord connects to the brain through what opening
    foramen magnum
  44. what is given off at various points along the spinal cord
  45. what outer thing protects the spinal cord
  46. what are the meninges and what is their function
    layer of 3 membranes w/ fluid in between acts as a cushion
  47. what is the cerebrospinal fluid and what is its function
    • fluid between the 2 layers of meninges
    • nutrients
    • coushin
  48. what is meningitis
    infection in fluid
  49. describe the general features of the brain?
    most highly organized tissue in the body
  50. what are the 3 parts of the brainstem
    • medulla oblongata
    • pons
    • midbrain
  51. what are the 2 parts of the diencephalon
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  52. name the 4 lobes of the cerebrum
    • frontal
    • occipital
    • parietal
    • temporal
  53. how are the lobes named
    • region
    • bones in skull
  54. how is the brain protected
    • skull
    • cranial bones
  55. how are the meninges of the spinal cord related to the meninges of the brain
    continuous covering
  56. what happends when the flow of blood is stopped to the the brain?
    • 1-2mins= cells weaken
    • 4 or more= brain damage (stroke)
  57. what happends when the glucose in the brains blood is low
    • dizzy
    • loss of conscience
  58. tracts of the medulla connect what 2 tings
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  59. what structure is common to the brain stem and the diencephalon
    reticular formation
  60. what lies above the medulla
  61. what is found above the pons
  62. what is another name of the midbrain
  63. what is attached to the hypothalamus
  64. the surface of the cerebrum is called what and is composed of what
    • cerebral cortex
    • gray matter
  65. what is the outer appearence of the cerebrum look like
    • grey frooves
    • convolutions
  66. divisions of the gray matter of the cerebrum (4)
    olfactory bulb= projections of anterior cerebrum that end in an expanding bulb

    limbic system= wishbone shaped group of structures that surround the brain stem

    basal ganglia= paired masses of gray matter

    cerebral cortex= outer covering of each cerebral 3mm thick, 70% of all neurons of CNS
  67. the cerebellum is found where and is connected to what
    above medula/ pons, connected to pons
  68. what are the parts of the cerebellum
    • vermis
    • hemispheres
    • grey matter
    • white matter
  69. what does the peripheral nervous system consist of
    • cranial nerves
    • spinal nerves
  70. describe the 2 parts of the PNS
    • afferent system- sensory neurons, info recptors to CNS
    • efferent system- motor nuerons, info CNS to skeletal muscles
  71. describe the 2 parts of the efferent system
    • somatic- SNS voluntary, skeletal muscle
    • autonomaic ANS- invuluntary, glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle
  72. describe the 2 parts of the autonomic nervous system
    • sympathetic division
    • parasympathetic division
  73. what are nerves
    bundles of myelinated nerve cell fibers found outside the CNS
  74. what are the 2 categories of nerves
    • spinal
    • cranial
  75. describe spinal nerves
    • 31 pairs
    • sensory
    • motor neurons
    • spineal cord
  76. describe the cranial nerves
    • 12 pairs
    • brain
    • sensory
    • motor neurons
  77. what are receptors and describe their features
    • specialized cells or organs that respond to stimuli
    • range in size from single to x nuerons in specalized structures
  78. the spinal nerves are names after what
    region where found
  79. how are the cranial nerves names
    roman numeral or name
  80. what are types of stimuli
    • visual
    • sound
    • touch
    • pressure
    • heat
    • cell damage`
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CHAPTER 8 study guide