1. Normal healing time of fractures bone?
    8-12 weeks
  2. What are the 5 stages of bone healing?
    • 1. Inflammation - 2 days
    • 2. Cellular proliferation - begins 2nd day
    • 3. Callus formation - 3-4 weeks
    • 4. Ossification - 3-4 months
    • 5. Remodeling - normal bone maintenance
  3. What happens during the inflammation stage of bone healing?
    Blood clot called fracture hematoma is formed.
  4. What happens during the cellular proliferation stage of bone healing?
    • Macrophages debride injured area.
    • Fibrin mesh allows for capillary and fibroblastic growth.
    • Fibroblasts and osteoblasts form periosteal callus.
  5. What happens during the callus formation stage of bone growth?
    Bone fragments grow together
  6. What happens during the ossification stage of bone healing?
    New tissue calcifies.
  7. What processes can disrupt bone healing?
    • -Inadequate immob.
    • - Distraction of bone fragments
    • - dec.blood supply
    • - infection
    • - interposition of soft tissue
  8. delayed union fracture
    Lengthened healing time for bine
  9. Nonunion fracture
    Fails to heal in resonable time frame due to poor positioning, improper immob
  10. Malunion fracture
    Fx heals incorrect position
  11. Erythrocytes sedimentation test
    Measrues how long it takes blood cells to settle on bottom of test tube. They settle faster during inflamm. Dx - inflamm conditions like RA
  12. Humanleukocyte antigens
    • Proteins in white blood cells
    • Dx - anklyosing spondylitis
  13. Latex fixation test
    Detects rheumatoid factors for dx of RA
  14. Rheumatoid factors test
    • Measure amount to rheumatoid factor in the blood.
    • Dx - RA
  15. Alkaline phosphates
    Needed for building new bone. Inc levels indicates bone disease.
  16. Calcium and phosphorus elevation dxs.
    Dx of osteoporosis or osteomalacia
  17. Abnormally high levels of serum irate suggest
  18. High levels of urinary uric acid suggest
  19. Antinuclear antibody test
    Dx of autoimmune disorders
  20. Bence jones protein
    Produced by malignant plasma cells
  21. Cultures
    • Used to id disease causing microorganisms
    • Dx for infectious diseases
  22. What 5 conditions can occur with lymphedema?
    • 1. Fibrosis
    • 2. Erysipelas
    • 3. Cornification
    • 4. Keratosis
    • 5. Edema
  23. Fibrosis
    hardening of soft tissue
  24. erysipelas
    result of acute strepococcal infection of the skin causing inflammation. Involves the fat underlying the skin.
  25. Cornification
    change of normal skin cells into hard material such as keratin
  26. Keratosis
    involves the growth of thick scaly bumps on skin
  27. Sagittal Plane
    Vertical - divides body into right and left sections
  28. Coronal Plane
    vertical plane which divides body into anterior and posterior
  29. Transverse Plane
    horizontal - divides body into upper and lower
  30. Median Plane
    A sagittal plane dividing the body through the median into right and left halves
  31. Fronal Plane
    Also coronal plane - anterior and posterior
  32. Ankylosis
    abnormal stiffness in a joint caused by injury or disease. Often results in RA
  33. Anthralgia
    pain in joint
  34. Osteochondritis
    inflamm of bone and cartilage
  35. Osteogenesis Imperfecta
    genetic condition which results in production of defective Type 1 collagen in body. Deformed, brittle and easly fx bones.
  36. Osteogenesis
    formation of bone
  37. Osteomalacia
    • - abnormal softening of the bone due to loss of bone mineral.
    • - Dec. amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the blood which results from dec. vitamin D.
  38. Osteoarthritis
    • - disease of aging
    • - articular cartilage wears away causing friction and pain
  39. Osteomylitis
    • - infection of bone and bone marrow
    • - bacterial or fungal
    • - infection starts in another part of body and travels through bloodstream to bone
  40. Osteonecrosis
    • - death of bone tissue
    • - results from disease or trauma that destroys blood supply to the diseased area
  41. Osteoma
    bone tumor
  42. Osteoporosis
    Loss of bone density due to loss of calcium
  43. Osteopenia
    Loss of bone mass to an abnormally low level
  44. Arthroplasty
    replacement of a joint
  45. Arthrotomy
    surgically opening a joint by an incision
  46. Osteotomy
    cutting of bone
  47. Osteoclasis
    intentionally fracturing a bone in order to correct an abnormal structure
  48. Arthrodesis
    surgical fusion of a joint
  49. Arthrocentesis
    removal of synovial fluid from a joint by needle puncture.
  50. Laminectomy
    removal of lamina of vertebrae to dec. pressure on nerve root
  51. Disarticulation of joint
    amputation through joint
  52. Desotomy
    incision of a ligament
  53. Myotomy
    incision of a muscle
  54. Neurotomey
    incision of a nerve
  55. Tenotomy
    incision of tendon
  56. Arthrectomy
    excision of a joint
  57. Sequestrectomy
    excision of dead bone
  58. Synostosis
    • - fusion of bones which are normally separate
    • - cab be surgical or natural
  59. Allograft
    transplant of cells, tissue or entire organ from one species to another of the same species
  60. Autograft
    transplant of cells, tissue or entire organs from one part of the body to another site within the same body
  61. Xenograft
    transplant of cells, tissue or organs from one species into another species
  62. Isograft
    transplant of cells, tissues or organs from one organism to a genetically identical recipient
  63. Angulation
    deviation of the broken bones from the normal position
  64. Chondrolysis
    loss of articular cartilage due to breakdown of cartilage matrix and cells
  65. Chondroplasia
    chondrocytes form cartilage
  66. Chondropathy
    disease of cartilage
  67. Chondrotomy
    surgical cutting of cartilage
  68. Chondroplasty
    surgical repair of cartilage
  69. Chondroosteodystrophy
    group of disorders of the cartilage and bone
  70. Dehiscience
    separation of the edges of a wound
  71. Cauterization
    • - use of healing to stop bleading
    • - 2 types - electrocautery and chemical cautery
  72. Anastomosis
    joining of 2 structures together
  73. Adhesion
    joining together of 2 normally separate tissues
  74. Plica
    fold, ridge or pleat in synovial tissue of the jt. capsule
  75. Bifurcation
    splitting of an anatomical structure into 2 parts
  76. Condyle
    rounded process at the end of bones which serve to articulate with another bone
  77. Epicondyle
    process on a bone above condyle and serve as attachment sites for ligaments and tendons
  78. Foramen
    natural opening in a bone through which nerves, ligaments and blood vessels pass
  79. Fossa
    Depression on a bone
  80. Fovea
    cup shaped depression on a bone. Smaller than a fossa
  81. Tuberosity
    nodule on a bone which allows for attachment of muscles and ligaments
  82. Diaphysis
    shaft of bone
  83. physis
    site of bone growth
  84. epiphysis
    end of a bone
  85. metaphysis
    active formation occurs here in the bone
  86. periosteum
    thin dense fibrous tissue covering the bone that contains blood vessels and nerves
  87. endosteum
    lines the inner part of the bones that have a medulllary cavity
  88. Synovium
    soft thin membrane lining the inside of a joint cavity
Card Set
Terms and anatomy