World History II

  1. Facist- permanent dictatorship, look to the glorious past, limited private ownership, right winged, extreme nationalists, racist, gave leaders titlesCommunist- temporary dictatorship, look to the future, no private ownership, left winged, internationalists, no deviation
    Difference between Facist and Communist Totalitarianism
  2. Totalitarianism
    total control/power in the hands of one. The individual is always worth less than the state.
  3. Russia
    1st communist totalitarianist country
  4. Lenin
    ran the government of Russia w/ controlled economy. people learned that they would never move up with this system.
  5. NEP (New Economic Policy)
    Incentive placed in Russia to work harder. If you made extra, you could keep it (agriculture), if you exceded quota in factory, you get bonus.
  6. Stalin
    Crafty. fought for Lenin's job. born in cold north. left when of age. heard Lenin speak and wanted to be part of movement. made himself important by doing the dirty work.
  7. Trotsky
    smart. fought for Lenin's job. pushed out of the Politburo. exiled and then killed in Mexico in '29
  8. 5 Year Plans
    Stalin set this up to help industry.
  9. Politburo
    small group of government just under the leader
  10. Agriculture
    Russia always had to import food. only prosperous area was the Ukrane.
  11. Collectivization
    organized collective farms. collect land together and ppl and crops would be assigned.
  12. Purges
    cleansing in Russia of 'old enemies'
  13. Kirov
    chief deputy killed by payed assassin
  14. 1. old Bolsheviks
    2. military leaders
    3. assassin of Kirov
    Order of Russian Purges
  15. ppl had jobs & some free medical care
    Positives of Stalin rule
  16. Italy
  17. Problems in post WWI Italy
    • 1. angry b/c of outcome of war
    • 2. high poverty
    • 3. Fiume
    • 4. Italian International Facist Party
  18. Fiume
    port city in Yugoslavia that Orlando wanted. Had much trade to and from Russia
  19. Italian International Facist Party
    Mussolini organization of unemployed veterans
  20. Victor Emmanuel III
    ruler of Italy b/f Mussolini
  21. Mussolini told VEIII that he would march into Rome and that VEIII had better appoint him Primere, VEIII did it and gave him 1 yr dictatorship
    Mussolini's Path to Power
  22. Il Duce
    Mussolini's title
  23. Black Shirts
    violent Facist group who told Mussolini to 'get tough'
  24. Matteotti
    socialist who was kidnapped from office and killed by Black Shirts
  25. no unions
    no strikes
    no free press
    controlled education
    Mussolini's rules
  26. Rome- Berlin Axis
    the area w/ which the whole of Europe would revolve around
  27. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
    Japan joined the area w/ which the whole of Europe would revolve around
  28. Francisco Franco
    facist ruler of Spain. not as cruel as Hitler or Mussolini. when he stepped down, he handed Spain back to the royal family
  29. Sparticists
    German communists who thought they could take over Germany
  30. Karl Liebknecht
    Rosa Luxemberg
    Sparticists rulers
  31. Hindenburg
    elected president of the Weimar Republic in Germany
  32. ppl who lost everything
    disillusioned college students
    Hitler Supporters
  33. Hitler Youth
    group created by Hitler
  34. 1. dismissed legislatuer and called for new elections (private army enforced votes)
    2. burned Reichstag Building (legislature building)
    3. had legislature pass the Enabeling Acts (gave him dictator powers for 4 years)
    4. Hindenberg died, appointed himself President and Chancelor under the Enabling Act
    Hitler as Chancelor
  35. Hitler's Top Officials
    • 1. Goering
    • 2. Himmler
    • 3. Goebbels
    • 4. Streicher
    • 5. Von Ribbontrop
  36. Goering
    founded the Gestapo. Later headed the Luftwaffe (Germ. Air Force)
  37. Himmler
    took over Gestapo after Goering left. Also headed SS (Hitler's private bodyguards)
  38. Goebbels
    propoganda minister. Job was to make ppl believe Hitler
  39. Streicher
    anti-sematic propoganda
  40. Von Ribbontrop
    foreign minister
  41. Autarky
    'self-sufficient'. Hitler wanted Germ. to be self-sufficient. this is when they came up w/ rayon fabric
  42. S.A.
    private army. helped him get private audiences and majority in legisature. regular army jealous of them.
  43. Blood Purge
    b/c of the regular army's jealousy of the S.A., Hitler had German army scatter and kill the S.A.
  44. Master Race
    Hitler wanted to create blonde hair/ blue eyed Aryan race.
  45. 1. putting men to work building roads and cheap homes
    2. ordered company to build cheap cars (VW)
    3. created 'strength through joy' program. gave workers three 4 day vacations @ government resorts. did this to help create 'family time'
    Hitler's actions to please people
  46. Nuremberg Laws of 1935
    said the Jews were the greatest criminals of all time and they should be prosecuted
  47. Pogrums
    Hitler tried to get Jews to leave Germany by doing this
  48. Saar
    15 years of France mining was over. they decided to rejoin Germany
  49. Rhineland
    can now be fortified. France kicked out
  50. Anschluss
    union w/ Austria
  51. Sudetenland
    country by Czechoslovakia that Hitler took. Very large amount of chemicals for warfare
  52. Polish Corridor
    Hitler said he was going to take this and Poland. GB and France said if he did, they would declare war. marched in on 9-1-39
  53. 10 year non agression pact
    for 10 years Germany and Russia would not invade each other
  54. Panzer
    tanks and heavily armed war goods
  55. Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithouania
    Taken by Hitler w/ in 4 weeks before war officially started
  56. Blitzkrieg
    lightning warfare
  57. 9-3-39
    begining of WWII
  58. Sitzkrieg
    no activity from after the 4 weeks of taking Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to the spring of '40.
  59. Maginot Line
    france was expecting a war like WWI, creating trenches to kill marching Germans, but the Germans rolled over them, killing many
  60. Dunkirk
    Germany rolled through Holland, Belgium, and France. Brit army kept having to retreat, til they got to _______. They couldn't back up any more from there
  61. Vichy France
    (South & East France) appointed Petain to run it. he became a traitor. Hitler said it would still be free.
  62. France
    (North) Occupied. took it b/c it would be right by GB.
  63. Free France
    (not geographical) underground movement. headquarterer in GB by Charles De Gaulle.
  64. De Gaulle
    organizor of 'Free France' movement in GB
  65. Operation Sealion
    daily bombing of GB by Germ.
  66. Battle of Britain
    Hitler's 1st big loss
  67. Balcans
    area Hitler told Mussolini to take while he was bombing GB.
  68. Rommel
    'desert fox'. great Germ. military leader of African Campaign
  69. African Campaign
    Rommel took all of N Africa and Allimaine. needed supplies, didn't get them, thus lost all of N Africa
  70. Operation Barbarossa
    aka Operation Red Beard. supposed to be quick move to take Russia but his big tanks didn't take well to Russian dirt roads
  71. China
    Japan was at war with whom since 1937?
  72. 12-7-41
    Pearl Harbor
  73. Pacific Islands
    Japan quickly took this location after Pearl Harbor
  74. Island Hopping
    policy in pacific to focus on islands w/ immediate need
  75. Final Solution
    killing of Jews in concentration camps. directed by Himmler
  76. Holocaust
    Hitler ordered for this to be done while he was away in Moscow. Himmler.
  77. Leningrad
    Russian city Hitler spent 17 months trying to take
  78. Stalingrad
    Russia took control of Germany here
  79. Anzio and Solarno
    2 beachlands US took
  80. France
    FDR and Stalin, but not Churchill, wanted 2nd front in ______.
  81. Dwight D. Eisenhower
    Supreme allied commander
  82. Operation Overlord
    D-day's code name
  83. 6-6-44
  84. Battle of the Bulge
    last big offensive battle in the west
  85. 5-8-45
    VE Day
  86. Battle of Coral Sea
    saved Australia from Japan
  87. Midway
    saved Hawaii from Japan
  88. Gualalcanal
    1st offensive action US took in Pacific
  89. Okinawa
    1st time kamakazi planes used in large #s
  90. Leyte Gulf
    destroyed large portion of Japan's navy
  91. Manhattan Project
    US perfected the atom bomb
  92. Gen. Douglass McArthur
    supreme allied commander in Pacific
  93. 8-6-45
    Date of 1st A-bomb dropped
  94. Hiroshima
    place 1st A-bomb dropped
  95. Nagasaki
    2nd A-bomb
  96. 8-15-45
    VJ Day
  97. Casablanca
    unconditional surrender
  98. Moscow
    decisions made w/o Churchill or FDR
  99. Teheran
    planned attack on Ger, planned 2nd front
  100. Yalta
    • 1. russia enter war in exten. cirr.
    • 2. divided Germany into occ. zones
    • 3. polish border decided
    • 4. govt's set up according to will of ppl
    • 5. lais foundation for UN
    • 6. laid foundation for Cold War
  101. Potsdam
    • 1.Truman (new President)
    • 2.Atlee (grom GB
    • 3.disarm Germ. & Japan
    • 4. leaders tried as war criminals
    • 5. German resources to repair damages
  102. 1.lands taken
    3.Austria could never join w/ Germany
    4.reduced military reformations
    6.Austria must remain neutral
    smaller countries on Axis side lost:
  103. 1.neutral and carry
    3 positions of the US prior to entering the war
  104. Germany
    country divided into 4 sections
  105. Berlin
    city divided into 4 sections. partially ran by Russia
  106. Nuremburg Trials
    Goering killed himself b/f sentencing. 10 ppl hung
  107. Japan
    had occupation army. trials for war. some hung. Primere Tojo tried and hung (military and political figure)
  108. Hiroshito
    Japanese emperor forced to tell country he wasn't direct decendent of Sun god
  109. Iron Curtain
    Russian occupied E. Europe behind ________
  110. Cold War
    war of words instead of fighting
  111. Truman Doctrine
    'contain communism where it exhists, but allow no spread'
  112. Marshall Plan
    economic aid to rebuild democracies in Europe
  113. NATO
    created to have a response ready in case of another blockaid
  114. Warsaw Pact
    same as NATO, but for communism
  115. SEATO
    South East Asia Treaty Organization
  116. Taiwan
    only free part of China
  117. Mao Ze Dong
    communist leader in China
  118. Adenaur and Ludwig Erhard
    President of Germany and economic minister who were the 2 main rebuilders of Germany
  119. 1. abolished price controls
    2. abolished rationing
    3. full employment
    4. strong currency
    5. social reform
    6. health care
    what did Adenaur and Ludwig Erhard accomplish in post WWII Germany?
  120. Schuman Plan
    'all of europe should produce as one to make Europe economically dependant on each other' so they couldn't afford to go to war
  121. Treaty of Rome
    created European economic community, common market
  122. Decolonization
    colonies given independence, many had hard times b/c they were just released w/ no experience
  123. Neocolonialism
    'new colonialism'. didn't technically own the colonies any more, but still ran things. left bad taste in colonies mouth
  124. Yugoslavia
    Stalin woned all of E. Europe except _______
  125. Tito
    Yugoslavia communist ruler
  126. Khrushchev
    took over after Stalin, made major changes, hated Stalin, said ppl shouldn't be killed off by leader, more should be heard than just leader
  127. 1. not a lot of murder
    2. not a lot of torture
    3. wouldn't make alliances w/ dictators
    4. small change in standard of living
    5. let writers be freer to write w/o fear of government
    6. peaceful, coexistence foreign policy
    Khrushchev rule
  128. Summit Meeting
    Eisenhower and Khrushchev had 1st meeting that misled some people
  129. Batista
    strong man in Cuba, cruel dictator
  130. 1. got rid of Batista
    2. made Cuba communist
    3. got tax $ from Havana and closed it down
    4. Cubans tried to leave country and go to south Fla.
  131. Bay of Pigs
    • 1. Cubans wanted to take over Cuba w/ US help, but it was a disaster
    • 2. Kennedy enemy of Castro
    • 3. Missle Crisis: told Castro to get missiles out of Cuba so he did
  132. Brezhnev
    replaced Khrus, more like Stalin
  133. 1. had right to intervene when needed anywhere
    2. gov't was harsh
    3. organized opposition was impossible
    Brezhner Doctrine
  134. Gorbachev
    campaigned against alcohol in Russia
  135. Glasnost
    Gorbachev's new openness
  136. Eisenhower
    US president in the 50's
  137. Kennedy
    • 1. 'time to move' president
    • 2. inherited Nam's probs
    • 3. increased $, troops, advisors
    • 4. assassinated
  138. LBJ
    • 1. after Kennedy
    • 2. short temper, harsh
    • 3. obsessed w/ Nam
    • 4. did good things at home
    • -Civil Rights Bill
    • -Voting Rights Act
    • -War on Poverty
  139. Voting Rights Act
    (LBJ) did away w/ poll tax
  140. War on Poverty
    (LBJ) 1st president to be concerned w/ poverty
  141. TET
    Vietnam's New Year, costly b/c we weren't paying attention
  142. Nixon
    US president that pulled US out of war, US realized containment wasn't necessary
  143. Regan
    US president that increased spending
  144. Helsinki Conference
    • 1. 35 nations met in Finland
    • 2. said borders wouldn't be changed by force
    • 3. said countries would concentrate on human rights
  145. Soviet Union
    ignored Helsinki Conference and moved into Afganistan
Card Set
World History II
Final Exam