Secondary Methods Final Review

  1. Standardized Tests
    Tests with fixed content which are devised so that they can be administered to different groups of people at different times
  2. Norms
    Scores that have been established as typical for a population
  3. Reliability
    Consistency with which a test measures actual knowledge
  4. Validity
    Determining whether a test measures what it is supposed to measure
  5. Measurement
    The use of tests and performance rating scales that are designed to produce a specific grade
  6. Evaluation
    Judgments that a music educator makes relating to their students and students efforts
  7. Assessment
    Guides instruction and is the means by which educators can gather information about their students’ level of achievement
  8. Musical Aptitude
    A predictor of ability to retain, recognize, and produce a short musical phrase; indicator of potential capacity for musical achievement
  9. Musical Achievement
    Measurement of what has been learned, measures facts, skills, understanding
  10. Accountability
    School music is accountable to supervisor/administrator, who are accountable to school board, and ultimately the public
  11. Video Assessment
    Video is shown to members of the group, students self-evaluate, the director makes notes and highlights areas for improvement
  12. Progress Charts
    Series of objectives to achieve, and as each are reached a grade is assigned, uses peer pressure to improve
  13. Learning Contracts
    Students and parents enter into a contract with the teacher, outlining the criteria on which grades will be awarded
  14. Portfolio Assessment
    A compiled portfolio of work in progress, ensemble music folders are an example
  15. Aptitude Tests in Music Education
    Seek to identify potential talent and nurture it.
  16. Purposes of musical aptitude tests
    Predict the success of students enrolling in instrumental music programs
  17. Arnold Bentley: Measures of musical aptitude
    1966, pitch discrimination, tonal memory, chord analysis, rhythm memory, ages 7-14, high validity and reliability
  18. Raleigh Drake: Drake musical aptitude test
    1954, age 8-adult, two forms, memory and rhythm, high reliability but low validity
  19. Edwin Gordon: Musical aptitude profile
    1965, grades 4-12, tonal imagery, rhythm imagery, musical sensitivity, highly thorough
  20. Edwin Gordon: Primary measures of music audiation
    1979, grades k-3, evaluate tonal and rhythmic aptitudes of young children
  21. Carl E. Seashore: Seashore measures of musical talent
    1919, grades 4-adult, set the standard for all other musical aptitude tests, six separate subtests
  22. Industry promotional tests
    Determine a degree of relative ability, identify a student within an ensemble, talent quiz, In Tune: a recruiting program, music guidance survey
  23. Bennett reimer
    Author of A Philosophy of Music Education, provided the aesthetic theory for music education
  24. A Philosophy of Music Education
    Bennett Reimer, provided aesthetic approach to music education
  25. Idealism
    Believes that reality is governed by a permanent, uniform, and absolute spiritual mind. Teacher uses discussion and sees discipline as a part of teaching, not an end to teaching
  26. Realism
    Belief in the reality of a matter, independent of opinion and desire. Believe in teaching what is commonly accepted as good knowledge, no respect for inspirational value in history, impatient with distracting behavior.
  27. Pragmatism
    Practical usefulness, Dewey, learning how to acquire skills, nonmusical result of music study, not concerned with evaluation
  28. Experimentalism
    Learning by doing and importance of direct experience
  29. Aesthetics and Music Education
    Some level of involvement with expressive qualities rather than simply with symbolic designations, dependent largely on the preparation of the listener to hear the music.
  30. Music in the School Curriculum
    Interest in how the teacher views the role of music education I a school system
  31. David Elliot
    Author of The Praxial philosophy of music education
  32. The Praxial Philosophy of Music Education
    Written by David Elliot, presents the praxial view of music education
  33. Music Education Processes, products, and contexts
    Written by David Elliot
  34. Estelle Jorgensen
    Author of On Spheres of Musical Validity, community based learning
  35. On Spheres of Musical Validity
    Written by Estelle Jorgensen
  36. The Music Handbook
    Letter from the director, objectives of the program, parent advocacy information, curriculum and course offerings, merit system, financial obligations, audition information, grading system, equipment needs, method books, master schedule, student directory, absence form, letter of consent
  37. The role of the booster club
    Handle booster club issues, build a family that works together for the good of all
  38. Steering committee
    President, Vice president, president elect, secretary, operations, fundraising, treasurer, media, equipment, transportation
  39. Committees
    Student accounts, parent helpers, liaisons, food, uniforms, clearinghouse, chaperones, newsletter, etc…
  40. Planning a budget
    Plan a budget in advance and make students aware of their obligations
  41. Methods to deal with difficult parents
    Establish clear policies, include these in the handbook, document everything
  42. The first two days of school
    Policies and procedures, consequences, how to rehearse, overall plan, possible quiz on the handbook
  43. Greeting the new ones
    New students need to know that they are in the right place and they are welcomed
  44. Rules and consequences
    Certain rules need to have clear consequences. Consequence is something that a student chooses.
  45. Expectations
    Communicate to students what is accepted behavior in the program
  46. Procedures
    How we do what we do
  47. Rehearsing classroom procedures
    Important to practice a few procedures so that students understand what to do
  48. Discipline
    Taking personal ownership in not talking during rehearsal because it disrupts others
  49. Punishment
    Doing push-ups for talking in rehearsal
  50. Rehearsal set-up and schedule
    Students should enter the class preset for success, maintain a consistent schedule for class
  51. Reflective practitioners (Schon, 1983)
    Teachers who reflect on what they know and what they need to do
  52. Community of learners
    Teachers and students work together in order to learn
  53. Apprenticeship of observation (Lortie, 1975)
    Observations and past experiences that affect a teacher’s methods
  54. Subject-centered
    The content being taught is the most important part of teaching, and the learning is centered around it
  55. Student-centered
    The students’ needs are the most important part of teaching, and the learning is directed to student needs
  56. Core knowledge
    Subject area knowledge, skills, the ability to transform that knowledge into meaningful instruction
  57. Subject area knowledge
    Skills and knowledge necessary for a given content area
  58. Kodaly Method
    Hungarian method of learning music, formed by Zoltan Kodaly
  59. Dalcroze method
    Method of learning music, focuses on eurhythmics
  60. Orff method
    Method of learning music, Carl Orff
  61. Comprehensive musicianship approach
    Method of learning music, closely associated with American music
  62. Horace Mann
    Signed a bill that created a state board of education, first secretary of said board, created annual reports on the state of education in Massachusetts
  63. Lowell Mason
    First music educator, used Pestalozzi ideas, 1837, Juvenile Lyre
  64. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
    Educational philosopher, believed in whole child education, training the head, hand and heart; teacher’s job was to stimulate and direct student to self-activity
  65. Pestalozzian principles of education
    Structured so that each stage should grow naturally out of the preceding stage, whole-child education
  66. Tonic solfa
    System in which “do” is the tonal center in all major and “la” in all minor, employed by Mason
  67. The song method
    Shift in focus from doing exercises in music to learning music through performing songs.
  68. Music appreciation movement
    Children move from doing in the 19th century to liking in the early 20th century
  69. Oberlin College
    First music training school, 1922
  70. Two early 20th century developments
    • Research techniques and widespread dissemination of results
    • Phonograph
  71. Woods Hole Conference
    1959, scientists, scholars, educators, generated curriculum studies
  72. The Young Composer’s project
    1959, funded by the Ford foundation, composers went into schools as teachers
  73. Contemporary music project for creativity in music education
    Result of the Young Composer’s project, encouraged teachers to utilize a synthesis of performance, analysis, and composition
  74. The yale seminar
    1963, focused on problems facing contemporary music education, particularly music materials and music performance
  75. Julliard repertory
    Result of yale seminar, 1964, collection of a repertory of authentic and meaningful music materials
  76. The manhattanville music curriculum program
    1965, development of a comprehensive curriculum in music and an early childhood curriculum in music
  77. Ronald B. Thomas
    Began the manhattanville music curriculum program
  78. Synthesis - MMCP
    Comprehensive curriculum for grades 3-12
  79. Interaction - MMCP
    Early childhood curriculum in music
  80. Inherent concepts
    Apply to all types of music; form, melodic direction, timbre, texture, dynamics, harmony, rhythm
  81. Idiomatic concepts
    Apply only to a specific music from a specific area of the world
  82. The Tanglewood symposium
    1967, MENC, formulated 8 declarations, evaluated the role of music in American society and in education
  83. The goals and objectives project
    1969, result of tanglewood, evaluated areas of music education
  84. The national standards for arts education
    1994, first standards for arts, initiated by MENC
  85. Goals 2000: educate America act
    1994, resulted in the National Standards, outcomes were that students would improve dramatically in the US
  86. A nation at risk
    1983, Ronal Reagan, showed that American schools are failing
  87. The ann arbor symposium
    1967, a panel of psychologists presented papers on various topics of interest in the psychology of music teaching, music educators presented papers on music learning and learning theory, exchanged papers, presented reports
  88. The mountain lake colloquium
    1991, music educators shared their strengths and weaknesses and set up a professional development model
  89. The getty education institute for the arts
    Initiated partnering between public school arts and community arts programs
  90. Getting by: what American teenagers really think about their schools
    Students desire higher standards
  91. Sociocultural
    Characteristics that are not biological or financial, but are given by society and culture. Gender, race, ethnicity, culture, socioeconomic class
  92. Meeting at the crossroads: women’s psychology and girls’ development (1992)
    Series of disconnections or dissociations between girls and women
  93. Failing at fairness: how america’s schools cheat girls (1994)
    Schools cheat boys, they are forced underground in middle school by societal pressures
  94. How schools shortchange girls (1992)
    Gender differences in math are small and declining, science is increasing, girls choose math/science careers in low numbers
  95. Ethnicity
    Group that shares a common ancestry, culture, history, tradition, sense of peoplehood
  96. The color of strangers, the color of friends: the play of ethnicity in school and community
    Students form relationships on actions, not on race
  97. Culture
    The ever changing values, traditions, social and political relationships, and worldview created and shared by a group of people
  98. Social groups and socioeconomic status
    Jocks and burnouts
  99. Exceptional students
    An array of student characteristics that qualify an individual student to receive special services
  100. Multiple intelligences
    Offers teachers an in-depth view into their classroom to see how students learn
  101. Learning styles
    The unique ways whereby an individual gathers and processes information and are the means by which an individual prefers to learn
  102. Student discipline
    Managing student behavior in effective, respectful, and trustful ways
  103. Classroom management
    The ways I which a teacher organizes the classroom environment so that he or she and the students can work together cooperatively on academic activities
  104. Multidimensionality
    The things that happen every moment of the school day
  105. Simultaneity
    The dimensions of your classroom happening at the same time
  106. Immediacy
    Events happening at a rapid pace in the classroom
  107. Unpredictability
    Events that happen unexpectedly for which you cannot plan
  108. Publicness
    The classroom viewed as a public place
  109. Classroom historicity
    The norms, routines, habits, rules developed over a period of time
  110. Diversity
    Influence of student characteristics on negotiations resulting in classroom management plan
  111. Personal theories for teaching
    Result of your K-12 experience
  112. Effective classroom managers (Jones 1996)
    Know how to use every moment of classroom time for learning activities
  113. Non-instructional and instructional activities
    Non instructional activities are checking role, returning papers, interruptions, goal is to spend as little time as possible on non-instructional activities
  114. Learning experience
    Occasion when students are formally engaged in an instructional activity for the purpose of acquiring knowledge
  115. Routines
    Let students know what is expected
  116. Gordon (1974) teacher effectiveness training
    Open communications, students identify problems, Dewey, students are unique
  117. Dreikurs 1982 positive discipline
    Instruct on how to belong, teacher determines goals by observing, use encouragement and logical consequences
  118. Glasser 1986 reality model
    Students make judgments about behavior and commit to change, teacher can develop contracts, focus attention on bad behavior
  119. Axelrod and Skinner 1977 1968 behavior modification
    Teachers control classroom environment, student behavior can be modified, alter classroom environment, contingency contracting
  120. Teacher centered
    The discipline models that place the classroom management style entirely in the hands of the teacher
  121. Canter 1992 assertive discipline
    Establish optimal learning environment, verbally limit misbehavior, never negotiate, limit-setting consequences, plan for discipline
  122. Jones 1987
    Concerned with minor transgressions, use effective body language, incentive systems, personal help applied efficiently
  123. Proximity control
    Standing near a student in order to cause them to stop misbehaving
  124. Self-management
    Helping a student identify a problem behavior that can be defined and counted, assisting the student in devising a means for charting this behavior, and reinforcing the student’s appropriate use of self-management
  125. Middle-school movement
    Attempt to provide early adolescents with models of schooling that meet their developmental needs
  126. Factory model of schooling
    Obedience and control
  127. Curriculum
    Body of material that is to be taught in school
  128. Intended curriculum
    A body of content that is contained in an official framework, such as course syllabi, state curriculum guide, standards
  129. Taught curriculum
    What is taught to the students in classrooms and schools, provided by policy-makers
  130. Formal curriculum
    What teachers do and what they employ to teach targeted content
  131. Informal curriculum
    Ideas and attitudes that are not explicitly part of the intended curriculum, but implicitly are taught
  132. Learned curriculum
    What students learn in school
  133. Ethnographic studies
    Need to develop and implement school and classroom curricula that are culturally relevant to all students, not just mainstream students
  134. Historical curriculum
    All people in the community bring traditions of the past to the school
  135. Cuban’s 1996 definition of curriculum
    A series of planned events intended for students to learn particular knowledge and organized to be carried out by teachers.
  136. National standards in content areas figure 5.1
    MENC National Standards for Art Education
  137. National, state, and local curriculum leaders
    Standards, high-stakes testing, educators
  138. Two most significant levels of curriculum development
    The school and the classroom
  139. Factors that influence the nature of the classroom curriculum
    Textbooks, characteristics of students and the community, and developmental age of students
  140. Analysis – O’Toole
    Looking into a piece of music with the goal of understanding it for a CMP approach to teaching
  141. Broad descriptions
    Starting analysis by stating vague facts about a piece before focusing in on specific qualities of the piece.
  142. Background information
    Understand the style period, composer’s life, meaning of the piece, who performed this, other special aspects
  143. Elements of music
    Form, rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, texture, expression
  144. Analyzing compositional devices and elements of music
    The point of doing this is to construct an interpretation, which makes us artists
  145. The heart of music
    Analyze the affective aspects and explore desires for the composition
  146. Outcomes
    Skills, knowledge, affective outcomes
  147. Affective outcomes
    The intrinsic quality of humanness, expression
Card Set
Secondary Methods Final Review
MUSC 3954 review