pale skin color, in this instance caused by decreased blood flow to skin
rapid respiratory rate
chest pain due to heart muscle ischemia
abnormal heart sound caused by turbulent (abnormal) blood flow through heart
inability of heart muscle to meet demand for delivery of blood
cramping of leg muscles caused by ischemia.
ringing in the ears
incomplete, retarded, or defective development (think “Br. Davis’s brain”)
vitamin B9; also known as folic acid
the tubular “racing stripe” structure that forms along the back of the developing embryo that forms the nervous system.
low color, in this setting it means red blood cells with inadequate content of hemoglobin
inflammation of the tongue
“lysis” (rupture) of red blood cells (RBCs)
to gather together. Members of the Church gather for General Conference, actually…
to occlude (block off) blood vessels
the final cell stage in development of RBCs before the mature RBC is formed. 1% of circulating RBCs are reticulocytes under normal circumstances. If this percentage is increased (“reticulocytosis”), then hemolysis is the thing to suspect.
production of RBCs (erythropoiesis) in places other than bone marrow (which lives in the medullary cavity of bone)
a waste product of hemoglobin break-down and recycling
too high levels of blood bilirubin
thickness of a liquid. Maple syrup is more viscous than water.
abnormal accumulation of free blood in a joint space
in the bloodstream usually means proteins, small hormones, etc.
an over-active spleen (which pulls platelets and old RBCs out of circulation, so can lead to anemia & thrombocytopenia)
the innermost lining of blood vessels
groups of synergistic muscles surrounded by a layer of dense connective tissue
an increase in pressure inside a muscle compartment high enough to prevent blood from entering the compartment, causing ischemia/necrosis/etc.
Structure of large arteries:
i. Tunica intima—the innermost lining
ii. Tunica media—the thickest, muscular central layer which forms the bulk of the artery wall
iii. Tunica adventitia—the outermost layer in which the nerves & blood vessels that supply the artery itself run
blood proteins that transport lipids to and from tissues
increased blood flow
symptom of abnormal sensation: numbness, “pins & needles”, etc.
blockage of the flow of venous blood
General effects of anemia:
1. reduced oxygen-carrying capacity
2. tissue hypoxia
3. compensatory mechanisms to restore tissue oxygenation
a. increased heart rate, cardiac output, circulatory rate, and shunting of blood flow to vital organs.
b. Increased erythropoietic activity
decreased functional bone marrow, resulting in pancytopenia—reduction in all blood cells
B12 deficiency is known as:
pernicious anemia, and is associated with lack of intrinsic factor secretion by parietal cells in the stomach (often autoimmune)—without which B12 cannot be absorbed.
a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. It is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12
iron deficiency anemia:
the most common cause of anemia; may be due to low intake, diminished absorption, physiological increase in iron requirements (especially in pregnancy), iron loss (hemorrhage), chronic renal disease, etc.
craving for nonfood substances such as dirt, clay, ice, laundry starch, cardboard, or hair. typical to iron deficiency anemia.
How much bleeding per day can cause Fe deficiency anemia?
2-4 ml of bleeding/day can cause Fe deficiency anemia.)
abnormal red cell produced that are subject to increased hemolysis.
α-Thalassemia is found primarily in people of
β-thalassemia is found primarily among people of
Sickle cell disease—homozygous individuals:
produce ONLY hemoglobin S
Sickle cell trait—
heterozygous individuals: both normal & S chains are formed, with hemoglobin A usually exceeding amount of S.
Sickle cell Sequestration crisis—
large amounts of blood pool in liver +/or spleen. Only occurs in small children, and mortality rate is 50% or so.
Sickle cell Aplastic crisis—
sickled cells only circulate for 10-20 days (rather than 90-120 day for normal erythrocytes). This requires an increase in erythropoeisis (5-8 times normal). If the bone marrow can’t keep up, trouble occurs—acts much like aplastic anemia.