Microbiology Pathogens

  1. Gram: Positive
    Shape: cocci (strips)
    Metabolism: Catalase negative, microaerophile, beta-hemo
    Virulence: M protein, lipoteichoic acid
    Toxins: Erythrogenic toxin, TSStoxin
    Path: Pharyngitis, skin infections, scarlet fever, TSS (worst kind). Other: RF and glomerulonephritis
    Diagnosis: Gram stain, culture inhibited by Bacitracin, B-hemoltic
    • Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)
    • Information
  2. Gram: Positive
    shape: cocci (strips)
    Metab: Catalase negative, facultative, B-hemo
    Path: Neonatal problems (meningitism pneumo, sepsis)
    Drug: PCN G
    Diagnosis: Gm stain, culture CSF
    Misc: normal flora
    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)
  3. Gram: Positive
    Shape: cocci (strips)
    Metab: Catalse negative, facultative, alpha-hemo
    Path: Subacute bacterial endocarditis, dental cavities, brain abscessces
    Drug: PCN G
    Dx: Gm stain, culture, Resist optichin
    Misc: normal flora
    Streptococcus viridans
  4. Gram: Positive
    Shape: cocci (pairs)
    Metab: Catalase negative, facultative, alpha-hemo
    Virulence: capsule
    Toxin: pneumolysin
    Path: pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, otitis media
    Dx: PCN G, etc Gm stain, culture no growth in optochin and bile, Quellung test
    Streptococci pneumoniae
  5. Gram: postive
    Shape: cocci
    MEtab: catalase neg, facultative, all types of hemo
    Path: Subacute bacterial endocarditis
    Drug: ampicillin, resists PCN G, Vancomycin resistance (VRE)
    Misc: S. bovis = colon cancer
    • Group D strep
    • (enterococcus and others)
  6. Gram: positive
    Shape: cocci (clusters)
    Metab: Catalase pos, coagulase pos, facultative
    Virulence: Protein A, coagulase, hemolysin, leukocidin, PCNase, hyaluronidase, etc
    Toxin: exfoliatin, enterotoxin, TSST-1
    Path: Extoxin:gastroenteritis (food poisoning), TSS (food poisoning + scarlet fever), Scalded
    skin syndrome. Direct invasion of all organs
    Drugs: PCNase resistant PCN, Vancomycin (for MRSA), clindamycin
    Dx: Gm stain, yellowish beta-hemolytic, cat+ and coag +
    Staphylococcus aureus
  7. Gram: positive
    Shape: cocci (clusters)
    Metab: cat pos, coag neg, facultative
    Virulence: Capsule
    Path: Nosocomial infect (on prosthetics and catheters), skin contaminant
    Drugs: Vancomycin (very resistant)
    Dx: Gm stain, culture, coag-neg + cat pos
    Staphylococcus epidermidis
  8. Gram: positive
    Shape: cocci (clusters)
    Metab: cat pos, coag neg, facultative, gamma-hemoly
    Path: UTI in sexual women
    Drug: PCN
    Dx: Gm stain, culture, coag-neg + cat pos, gamma-hemo
    Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  9. Gram: positive
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: aerobic, forms spores
    Virulence: protein capsule, endospores
    Toxin: Exotoxin: PA, EF, LF
    Path: Anthrax: cutaneous, pulmonary and GI
    Drugs: Doxcycline, CIPROfloxacin
    Dx: Gm stain culture, PCR, spore forming aerobic rod
    Bacillus anthracis
  10. Gram: postive
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: aerobic, forms spores, no capsule
    Path: enterotoxin: heat labile (cholera-like), heat stabile (S. aureus food poisoning) Food poisoning
    Drugs: Vancomycin, clindamycin, resists B-lactams
    Dx: culture from foods, foodborn spores
    Bacillus cereus
  11. gram: positive
    shape; bacilli
    metab: anaerobic, forms spores
    Virulence: flagella (H-Ag)
    ToxinL neurotoxin (inhibits ACh release - flaccid paralysis), released toxin
    Path: flaccid paralysis
    Drugs: Antitoxin, PCN
    Dx: Gm stain, anaerobic, rods and spores in soil food fish
    Clostridium botulinum
  12. Gram: positive
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: anaerobic, forms spores
    Virulence: flagella (H-Ag)
    Toxin: Tetanospasmin (inhibits GABA release - muscle contraction)
    Path: Muscle spasms, lock jaw
    Drugs: Antitoxin, PCN
    Dx: Gmstain, spores in soil
    Clostridium tetani
  13. Gram: positive
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: anaerobic, forms spores
    Virulence: non-motile
    Toxin: alphatoxin
    Path: Gaseous gangrene
    Drugs: surgery, PCN
    Dx: Gm stain and anaerobe in soil and GI
    Clostridium perfringens
  14. gran: positive
    shape: bacilli
    Metab: anaerobic, forms spores
    Virulence: flagella (H-Ag)
    Toxin: Toxin A = diarrhea, Toxin B = colonic cytotoxic
    Path: Pseudomembranous enterocolitis
    Drugs: Metronidazole, ORAL vancomycin
    Dx: examine colon
    Clostridium difficile
  15. Gram: positive
    Shape: bacilli (pleomorphic tho)
    Metab: Facultative, catalase +
    Virulence: pseudomembrane formation
    Toxin: Exotoxin: B binds to cardiac/nerual, A blocks protein synth.
    Path: Diptheria: pseudomenbrane formation, myocaditis, neural probs
    Drugs: Antitoxin, PCN, DPT vaccine
    Dx: Gm stain, tellurite and loefflers
    Misc: non-spore forming Gm + rod
    Corynebacterium diptheriae
  16. Gram: Positive
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: motile (H-ag), facultative, cat +, Beta-hemo, cold growth
    Virulence: flagella (H-Ag), hemolysin
    Toxin: Listeriolysin O
    Path: Neonatal meningitis, meningitis in immune comped, sepsis in prggers
    Drugs: Ampcillin, bactrim
    Dx: cold culture growth
    Misc: non-spore forming Gm + rod
    Listeria monocytogenes
  17. gram: positive
    shape: bacilli (filamentous)
    Metab: anaerobic, normal flora of mouth
    Path: Eroding abscesses
    Drugs: PCN G, surgery
    Dx: sulfur granules
    Actinomyces israelii
  18. Gram: negative
    Shape: cocci (diplo, kidney beans)
    Metab: facultatative, maltose and glucose
    Virulence: capsule, IgA protease, pili, LPS (endotoxin)
    Path: meningitis, meningococcemia, WF-syndome
    Drugs: Vaccine, PCN G, Ceftriaxone, Rifampin
    Dx: Culture on choclate agar and Thayer-martin
    Misc: Nasopharynx flora
    Neisseria meningitidis
  19. Gram: negative
    Shape: cocci (diplo, kidney beans)
    Metab: facultative, only glucose ferment
    Virulence: pili, IgA protease (No capsule)
    Toxin: Endotoxin
    Path: urethritis, PID (women), conjunctivitis (neonates)
    Drugs: Ceftriaxone, etc
    Dx: Chocolate agar
    Misc: STD, humans only
    Neisseria gonorhoeae
  20. Gram: negative
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: Beta-hemolytic, lactose ferment
    Virulence: Capsule, flagella (many), LPS
    Toxin: Enterotoxin: LT (increase cAMP, like cholera), ST (increase cGMP), shiga-like toxin (stop prot synth)
    Path: newborn meningitis, UTI, sepsis, DIARRHEA (EHEC, ETEC, EIEC)
    Drugs: Cephalosproin, aminoglycosides, bactrim, fluroquinolone
    Dx: Gm stain, culture (EMB - metallic green, macconkey), ferment lactose
    Misc: indicates fecal contamination
    Escherichia coli
  21. Gram: negative
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: lactose fermentor
    Virulence: capsule, non motile, LPS
    Path: pneumonia, UTI
    Drug: 3rd gen ceph, CIPRO
    Dx: EMB, macconkey
    Klebsiella pneumonia
  22. Gram: negative
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: urease splitter, no lactose ferm
    Virulence: swarming motile, LPS
    Toxin: none
    PAth: UTI
    Drugs: Ampicillin, bactrim
    Dx: EMB, macconkey, urease split
    Proteus mirabilis
  23. Gram: negative
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: no H2S productin or lactose ferm
    Toxin: LPS, Shiga toxin (inhibits 60S ribosome)
    Path: bloody diarrhea (like EIEC)
    Drugs: Fluroquinolone, Azithromycin, bactrim
    Dx: bloody diarrhea, not normal flora
    Shigella dysenteriae
  24. Gram: negative
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: produce H2S, no lactose ferm
    Virulence: flagella (H-Ag), capsule (Vi), LPS
    Path: Typhoid fever (fever, abd pain, liver/spleen big)
    Drugs: Cipro, ceftriaxone, bactrim,
    Dx: culture blood/urine not normal flora
    Misc: facultative intracellular parasite
    Salmonella typhi
  25. Gram: negative
    Shape: bacilli (curved w/ 1 flagella)
    Metab: oxidase +, ferments all sugar cept lactose
    Virulence: H-Ag, mucinase, fimbriae, noninvasive, LPS
    Toxin: Cholera - increases cAMP to cause electrolyte loss,
    Path: Cholera (watery diarrhea)
    Drugs: Fluids, doxycycline, fluroquin
    Misc: fecal-oral
    Vibrio cholera
  26. Gram: negative
    Shape: bacilli (looks like V. cholera)
    Metab: microaerophile, oxidase +
    Virulence: H-Ag, invasive, LPS
    Toxin: hemolytic toxin
    Path: 25% OF ALL food poisoning
    Drugs: Doxcycycline, fluroquin
    Dx: uncooked food, fecal oral
    Campylobacter jejuni
  27. Gram: negative
    Shape: bacilli
    metab: obligate aerobe, oxidase +, no lactose
    Virulence: H-ag, hemolysin, etc, LPS
    Toxin: Exotoxin A
    Path: BEPSEUDO (burns, endocard, pnumo, sesis, otitis media, UTI, osteomyeltis)
    Drugs: very resistant. Aminoglycocide + PCN
  28. Gram: negative
    Shape: coccobacilli
    Metab: aneaerobic
    Virulence: capsule (b = bad), attachemnt pili, IgA protease
    Toxin: none
    Path: encapsulated: meningitis, epiglottitis, sepsis, sep arthritis, pneumo
    Drugs: cephalosporin, vaccine
    Dx: Gm stain, chocolate agar,
    Misc: Human only (respiratory)
    Haemophilus influenzae
  29. Gram: negative
    Shape: coccobacilli
    Metab: anaerobic
    Virulence: capsule, B-lactamase, FHA
    Toxin: pertussis toxin (increase cAMP), Filamentous hemgluttinin (bind to cilia)
    Path: whooping cough (pertusis) (low fever, cough, etc)
    Drugs: Tdap, eryrhtromycin
    Dx: PCR, BG media
    Misc: respiratory infection
    Bordetalla pertussis
  30. Gram: negative
    Shape: bacilli
    Metab: can be intracellular,
    Virulence: pili, flagella
    Toxin: cytotoxin
    Path: Legionnaires (pnumo w/ fever and cough), pontiac fever
    Drugs: Erythromycin, rifampin
    Dx: culture on charcoal-yeast, IFA/ELISA
    Misc: respiratory, facultative intracellular in alveoli macros
    Legionella pneuophilia
  31. Gram: negative-like (NO PTG)
    Shape: can't see well
    Metab: elementary body (infectious) and Reticulate body (active)
    Virulence: resist lysozome, stops phagolysosome, non-motile
    Toxin: no toxin
    Path: Conjunctivitis, pneumonai, COMMON STD (serility, LGV, PID, urethritis, etc)
    Drugs: Doxycycline and Erythromycine, Azithromycine
    Dx: Cannot be cultured, shows no Gm - diplococci (Neisseria), IFA, serologic,
    Misc: Obligate intracellular
    Chlamydia trachomatis
  32. Gram: negative
    Shape: pleiomorphic
    Metab: Obligate intracellular, need ATP
    Virulence: nonmotile
    Toxin: none
    Path: RMSF (fever, redness, HA, spotted rash), damages ENDOTHELIUM
    Drugs: Doxyclycline, chloramphenicol
    Dx: Serology, can't culture
    Misc: Obligate intracellular, Southeast, Lonestar tick
    Rickettsia ricketsii
  33. gram: negative
    shape: pleiomorphic
    metab: obligate intracellular, need ATP, endospore!
    vir: nonmotile
    toxin: none
    path: Q fever (fever, HA, pneumo, no rash)
    drugs" Doxycycline, erythromycin, pasteurization
    Dx: Complement fixation
    Misc: Obligate intracellular, SPORES
    Coxiella burnetii
  34. Gram: negative
    shpe: pleiomorphic
    metab: obligate intracellular in WBC only
    Path: Ehrliciosis: similar to RMSF w/out a rash. Cause vasculitis
    Drugs: Doxycycline, Rifampin, Resist chloramphenicol
    Misc: Obligate intracellular, dog ticks
  35. Gram: negative
    shape: spiral (can't see tho)
    Metab: STD, microaerophile, sensitive to temp
    vir: motile
    Toxin: none (host response causes probs)
    Path: Syphilis:1st. Painless, single, infectious chancre. 2. rask on palms/soes, CNS eyes.
    3. Gumma ,CV, cardiac
    Drugs PCN
    Dx: Treponemal tests, VDRL (non-trep), 2-step Westblot/ELISA
    Misc: STD, humans only
    Treponema pallidum
  36. Gram: negative
    Shape: spirchete (can see, bigger)
    Metab: microaerophile, deer tick vector
    Toxin: none
    Path: Lyme disease: 1st erytema (target) 2. more erythema, CNS, cardiac, jts. 3. chronic arthritis
    Drugs: Doxycycline
    Dx: ELISA/West blod
    Misc: Deer tick. Northeast
    Borrelia burgdorferi
  37. Gram: acid fast
    Shape: bacilli w/ mycolic acid
    Metab: aerobic, cat +, slow growth (macros intracellular)
    Vir: Mycosides: cord, sulfatides, wax D. intracellular growth
    No toxin
    Path: TB: primary: asymptomatic w/ lungs.Reactivation: pulmonary, plerual lymphs, kidney, etc
    Drugs: Isoniazid
    Dx: AFB, PPD (mantoux) test, chest xray > 10mm = infected.
    Misc:Facultative intracellular
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  38. Gram: acid fast
    shape: bacilli
    metab: aerobic, cat +, low temperature
    Vir: nonmotile, intracellular growht
    Toxin: None
    Path: Leprosy: Lepromatous (infectious, low immunity, skin, nerves, eyes, leionine), Tuberculoid (good immunity, non-infectious, skin and nerve lesions
    Drugs: Rifampin,
    Dx: Can't be cultured, biopsy
    Misc: Facultative intracell
    Mycobacterium leprae
  39. Gram: partial AF, partial Positive
    Shape: bacilli (filamentous)
    Metab: aerobic, not normal flora
    Path: Pneumona and abscesses like TB
    Drugs: Bactrim
    Dx: Gm stain and AFB
    Misc: Immunocompromised, respiratory
    Nocardia asteroides
  40. Gram: none
    shape: pleiomorphic
    Metab: no cell wall, needs cholesterol, facultative
    Virulence: P1 to attach to epithelial in URT
    Toxins: none
    Path: tracheobronchitis. Walking pneumonia
    Drugs: Macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones
    Dx: PCR, comp fix, cold agglutinins
    Misc: smallest bact
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  41. Disease: Candidiasis
    Manifestation: Oral thrush, Yeast infection, UTI, Mucocutaneous
    Path: Acute pyogenic abscess
    Growth: Pseudohyphae (only one to do
    this - sausage links!) and yeast
    Treatment: fluconazole, imidazole, AMB, etc
    Notes: cutaneous/systemic
  42. Disease: Cryptococcosis
    Manifest: Flu-like symptoms. Fatal. Chronic meningitis
    Path: Little tissue inflammatory response
    Growth: Yeast w/ polysacc capsule
    Treatment: AMB, flucytocysteine
    Notes: systemic
  43. Disease: Aspergilliosis
    Manifest: Pneumonia, Aspergilloma, allergies,
    Path: Hypersensitivity and blood vessel invasion
    Growth: Septate hyphae
    Treatment: Surgery for glioma, corticosteroids for allergies, AMB, voriconazole,
  44. Disease: Mucormycosis
    Manifest: Sinusitis, rhinocerebral mucormycosis
    Path: Blood vessel invasion
    Growth: Non-septate Hyphae
    Treatment: AMB, surgery
    Misc: very fatal
  45. DIsease: Histoplasmosis
    Manifest: pulmonary disease, pneumonia (w/ calcified lesions), Histoplasmoma
    Path: Chronic granuloma formation (looks like TB)
    growth: Dimorphic
    Drugs: Itraconozole, AMB
    Notes: Located in Mississippi valley, systemic
  46. Disease: coccidioidomycosis
    Manifest: asymptomatic, pnumonia, can disseminate to other parts
    Growth: Dimorphic: mycelia at 25C, yeast at 37
    Drugs: AMB, Itraconazole, Fluconazole
    Misc: Desert of US, systemic
    Coccicoides immitis
  47. Disease: blastomycosis
    Manifest: asymptomatic (uncommon), pneumo (no calcified lesions), disseminated, skin ulcers
    Path: can spread to the rest of body?
    Growth: Dimorphic. yeast w/ thick walls and broad buds
    Drugs: Itraconazole, AMB
    Notes: systemic
  48. Transmissoin: Fecal-oral
    Morphology: Amoeba: oocyst and trophozoite (bulls eye nucleus w/ RBC in cytoplasm)
    Symptom: bloody diarrhea (colon lesions) and liver abscesses
    Diagnosis: Cysts and trophos in cytop, PCR, Ag capture
    Drugs: Metronidazole, Tinidazole
    Notes: Virulence due to causing apoptosis in colon. Most entamoeba are non-patho
    Entamoeba histolytica
  49. Transmission: Fecal-oral (contaminated water - beavers!)
    Morph: Oocysts. Flagella trophos
    SymptomsLfoul smelling, fatty diarrhea.
    Dx: Cyts/trophos in stool
    Drugs: Mentronidazole, Tinidazole
    Giardia lamblia
  50. Transmission: Oocysts from stool. Contaminated food
    Symptoms: N/V. Watery diarrhea
    Dx: stool exam for oocysts that glow under UV
    Drugs: Bactrim
    Cyclospora cayenesis
  51. Transmitted: Fecal-oral
    Morphology: Oocyst is infective. Life cycle in epithelials
    Symptoms: Water diarrhea, vomit, abd pain
    Dx: fecal exam for oocyst
    Drugs: None for immune incompetnet
    Note: obligate intracellular
  52. Transmitted: Fecal-oral
    Morpho: Oocyst is infective
    Symptoms: diarrhea and malabsorption esp in AIDS
    Dx: Oocyst in stool. Eosinophilia
    Drugs: Bactrim
    Note: obligate intracellular
  53. Transmission: Freshwater lakes. Water up the nose!
    Morpho: Amoeba
    Symptoms: meningitis. Very fatal
    Dx: CSF exam
    Drugs: AMB
    Naegleria fowleri
  54. Transmission: Freshwater lakes, dirty contacts
    Morpho: amoeba stage. Cyst in brain
    Symptoms: chronic granulomatous brian infection or meningencephalitis
    Dx: CSF and brain tissue exam
    Drugs: antifungal drugs. Not successful
  55. Transmisison: STD
    Morpho: No cyst. Flagella tropho
    Symptoms: vagina burning, frothy discharge
    Dx: vagina discharge, urine exam
    Misc: Not really intestinal…
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  56. Transmissin: Ingest oocyst of cat feces, raw pork, or congenital
    Morpho: Cyst = infectious. Trophozoites
    Symptoms: Congenitally acquired: chorioretinitis. Other: all tissues can be affected
    Dx: Serology (IgM, IgG),
    Drugs: Sulfadiazine+pyrimethamine
    Notes: Obligate intracellular
    Taxoplasma gondii
  57. Transmission: Sandfly vector
    Morpho: Amastigote = intracellular and nonflagellated in humans
    Symptoms: Cutaneous, visceral, mucocutaneous, leishmaniasis
    Dx: Blood smear, IgG titers
    Drugs: Antifungal drugs (AMB)
    Misc: Visceral hemoflagellate disease
  58. Transmission: Tsetse fly bite
    Morpho: Trpyo is motile extracellular
    Symptoms: African sleeping sickness: fever, HA, winterbottom's, CNS symptoms
    Dx: trypomastigotes in blood, serology
    Drugs: Suramin or Melasoprol
    Misc: Rhodiense (Southeast Af) is more severe than gambiense (West Af)
    Trypanosoma brucei rhodensie and gambiense
  59. Transmission: Kissing bug (reduvid bug). Bites and defecates
    Morpho: Amastigoe is intracellular and nonmotile. Trypo is motile in blood
    Symptoms: Chagas' disease
    Dx: Trypomastigotes in blood
    Drugs: Nitrofurtimox, Benznidazole
    Trypanosoma cruzi
  60. Transmission: Female anopheles mosquito bites at night
    Morpho: Life cycle (sporozoite,
    mesozoite, trophozoite)
    Symptoms: Malaria: periodic fever and shakes, sweats, anemia
    Dx: Blood smear of trophozoites
    Drugs: Chloroquine or quinine
    Misc: Many resistances to this: Duffy, sickle cell, G6PD. Falciparum is worst?
  61. Transmisison: Deer tick (same as lyme disease)
    Morpho: sporozoites in tick, extracellular trophozoites in humans.
    Symptoms: anemia, fatigue in immune compromised
    Dx: blood smear extracellular ring form outside of RBCs. Neast US
    Drugs: quinine w/ clindamycin
    Babesia microti
  62. Nematode
    Transmission: ingest eggs
    Symptoms: asymptomatic, cramps, dry cough/fever, worms
    Dx: eggs in stool, eosinophilia
    Drugs: mebendazole, albendazole, ivermectin, pyrantel paramoate
    Ascaris Lumbricoides
  63. Nematodes
    Transmission: larvae penetrate skin
    symptoms: diarrhea, abd pain, itchy at bite
    Dx: fecal exam for eggs, eosinophilia
    Drugs: mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, albendazole
    Misc: Ancyclostoma duodenum
    Hookworm (Necator americanus)
  64. Nematode
    Transmission: larvae penetrate skin
    Symptoms: vomit, diarrhea, anema, weight loss
    Dx: Fecal exam for larvae (NO EGGS), others
    Drugs: Ivermectin, albendazole, thiabnedazole
    Strongyloides stercoralis
  65. Nematode
    Transmission: Ingestion of cysts in pork
    symptoms: fever, abd pain, muscle aches,
    Dx: serologica, musc biopsy, eosinophilia
    Drugs: albendazole, mebendazole, thiabendazole
    Misc: cook pork!
    Trichinella spiralis
  66. Nematode
    Transmission: Ingest eggs
    Symptoms: perianal itching
    Dx: scotch tape test. NO EOSINOPHILIA
    Drugs: Mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, albendazole
    Enterobius vermicularis
  67. Blood nematode
    Transmission: vector = black fly
    Symptoms: River blindness, skin nodules, allergic rxn
    Dx: skin biopsy
    Drugs: Ivermectin, doxycycline,
    Onchocerca volvulus
  68. Trematode (fluke)
    Transmission: pentrate thru skin, eggs in water, snail int host
    Symptoms: acute schistosomiasis (katayama fever)
    Dx: eggs in stool, eosinophilia
    Drugs: praziqantel
  69. cestode
    Transmission: ingest undercooked pork. Ingest eggs = cysticercosis
    Symptoms: cysticercosis: eggs hatch in sm intestine, muscle, CNS, eye, etc
    Dx: Fecal exam,
    Drugs: praziqantel and albendazoel
    Taenia solium (pork tw)
  70. Cestode
    TransmissioN: ingest fertilized eggs
    Symptoms: Hydatid cysts (liver and lung) - lil tws
    Dx: CT scan
    Drugs: surgical removal of cysts
Card Set
Microbiology Pathogens
Medical microbiology