1. The promotional element consists of communications tools, including: (5)
    • advertising
    • personal selling
    • public relations
    • sales promotion
    • direct marketing
  2. A combination of 1 or more of the promotional elements is called:
    promotional mix
  3. the process of conveying a message to others
  4. communication consists of 6 elements:
    • a source
    • a message
    • a channel of communication
    • a receiver
    • encoding
    • decoding
  5. a message is conveyed by a means of a:
    channel of communication

    i.e. - salesperson, advertising media, etc
  6. the process of having the sender transform an idea into a set of symbols
  7. the process of having the receiver take a set of symbols, the message, and transform them into an idea
  8. what is needed for a message to be communicated effectively
    a mutually shared field of experience between the sender and receiver
  9. The sender's interpretation of the response and indicates whether the message was decoded and understood is:
  10. extraneous factors that can work against effective communication by distorting a message or the feedback received is
  11. 3 promotional elements often used in mass selling
    • advertising
    • sales promotion
    • public relations
  12. any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, good, service, or idea
  13. does mass media advertising (TV, radio, magazing) provide an immediate feedback loop?
  14. the two-way flow of communication between a buyer and seller, to influence a purchase decision
    personal selling
  15. Usually face to face communication between the sender and receiver

    B. personal selling
  16. advantages to personal selling
    • can conrol to whom the presentation is made, reducing wasted coverage
    • the seller can see or hear the buyers reaction and modify the message
  17. disadvantages of personal selling
    • the flexibility, different salespeople can change the message
    • the high cost -- generally the most expensive
  18. communication management that seeks to influence the feelings, opinions or beliefs held by customers
    public relations
  19. a nonpersonal, indirectly paid persentation of an organization, good, or service
  20. advantage of publicity
  21. disadvantage of publicity
    • lack of the users control
    • could be bad publicity
  22. a short-term inducement of value offered to arouse interest in buying a good or service
    sales promotion

    (coupons, rebates, samples)
  23. advantage of sales promotion
    short term nature, stimulates sales for their duration
  24. disadvantage of sales promotion
    • advertising support is needed
    • if conducted continuously, they lose effectiveness
  25. uses direct communication with consumers to generate a response in the form of an order, or a visit to a retail outlet
    direct marketing

    (face to face, direct mail, catalogs)
  26. advantage of direct marketing
    being customized to match the needs of specific target markets
  27. has been one of the fastest-growing forms of promotion

    A. direct marketing
  28. disadvantage of direct marketing
    • requires a comprehensive and up-to-date database with info about the target market
    • can be expensive and time consuming
    • growing concerns about privacy
  29. a combination of one ore more of the promotional tools
    promotional mix
  30. promotional tools used in the introduction stage of a products life cycle
    all the promotional mix elements are used to raise awareness
  31. promotional tools used in growth stage of a products life cycle
    advertising and personal selling

    persuade customers to buy product
  32. promotional tools used in the maturity stage
    advertising and sales promotion

    to maintain existing buyers
  33. directing the promotional mix to channel members to gain their cooperation in ordering and stocking the product

    A. push strategy
  34. directing its promotional mix at ultimate consumers to encourage them to ask the retailer for the product

    A. pull strategy
  35. the sequence of stages a prospective buyer goes through from initial awareness of a product to eventual action
    hierarchy of effects

    • -awareness
    • -interest
    • -evaluation
    • -trial
    • -adoption
  36. methods used to set the promotion budget
    • percentage of sales - use past sales to decide amount to spend
    • competitive parity - matching a competitors absolute level of spending
    • all you can afford - money spent only after all other costs are covered
    • objetive and task - (the best approach) determines objectives, outlines tasks, determines costs to perform tasks
  37. the most popular form of direct marketing

    A. direct mail
  38. the result of offers that contain all of the information necessary for a prospective buyer to make a decision to purchase and complete the transaction

    A. direct orders
  39. the outcome of an offer designed to motivate people to visit a business

    A. traffic generation
  40. challnges faced by direct marketing
    • some countries have mandatory "opt-ins"
    • not all countries mail, phone, and internet are as well developed as the U.S.
    • payment
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