Pediatric Nutrition

  1. Inborn errors of metabolism
    • rare genetic disorder in which the body cannot properly turn food into energy
    • usually caused by defects in specific proteins that helps body break down food
  2. side effects
    • food product that is not metabolized can build up and cause problems.
    • can cause developmental delays
    • diet change can help
    • type and extent of change depends on specific error
  3. newborn screening
    • detection is complicated
    • symptoms are nonspecific
    • most infants look normal at birth
  4. nonselective neonatal screening
    • screening of all newborns
    • goal is early identification and treatment before signs and symptoms show up
  5. selective neonatal screening
    • known to be at risk
    • siblings
    • confirmatory testing of a positive neonatal screening test
  6. all states test for
    • pku
    • phenylketonuria
  7. tandem mass spectroscopy
    allows for the screening for over 30 disorders by analyzing metabolites in a blood spot collected on a filter paper
  8. most common
    • fructose intolerance
    • galactosemia
    • maple sugar urine disease
    • phenylketonuria
  9. fructose intolerance
    • person lacks protein needed to break down fructose
    • if consumed, chemical changes occur in the body
    • body cannot change its energy storage material into glucose
    • blood sugar falls and substances build up in the liver
  10. symptoms for fructose intolerance
    • can be seen after baby starts formula or food
    • convulsions
    • excessive sleepiness
    • irritability
    • jaundice
    • poor feeding as baby
    • problems after eating fruits
    • vomiting
    • removing fructose and sucrose in diet -treatment
  11. Glactosemia
    • body is unable to use simple sugar galactose
    • makes up half of lactose-found in milk
    • damage liver, brain, kidneys, and eyes
    • cannot tolerate any form of milk
  12. treatment of galactosemia
    • avoid all milk-containing products
    • infants can be fed with soy formula, meat-based formula, lactose-free formula
    • calcium supplements
  13. Maple Sugar Urine Disease
    • metabolism disorder passed down through families
    • body cannot break down certain parts of proteins
    • smells like maple syrup
    • gene defect
  14. treatment of MSUD
    • diet free of branched-chain amino acids is started when amino acid levels are normal
    • man-made infant formula with low levels of amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine
    • follow diet to prevent nervous system damage
    • requires frequent blood tests
    • life threatening
  15. Phenylketonuria
    • genetic disorder
    • cannot process part of phenylaline- in almost all foods
    • damage brain and cause mental retardation
  16. treatment for pku
    • diet of low-protein foods
    • includes many fruits and vegetables
    • some low-protein breads, pastas, cereals
    • special formula, made without Phe to help with vitamins and minerals
    • for life
  17. symptoms of pku
    • normal at birth
    • 3-6 months begin to lose interest in surroundings
    • age 1 developmentally delayed and skin has less pigmentation
    • IDDs
  18. eating disorders
    • serious emotional and physical problems that can have life-threatening consequences for females and males
    • anorexia
    • bulimia
    • binge eating disorder
  19. disordered eating
    • characterized by distorted or disturbed attitudes or behaviors surrounding food
    • may include preoccupation with body image as well as weight
  20. disordered eating in children compromises
    • normal growth and maturation processes
    • height
    • bone density
    • pubertal development
    • emotional health
  21. why the increasing concern
    • life-long eating habits, self esteem, exercise and body image is constructed
    • seeds are sown in early childhood
    • mind is impressionable/molded
    • kids developing anxiety about size and shape
    • prevalence is rising
    • spectrum ranges from full-fledge eating disorders to food refusal
    • more and more hospitalized
    • may not fit into criteria for ed, but have stopped growth and dev.
    • dieting can begin as young as 6-7
    • dissatisfaction with body image is increasing in girls 5-8 years
  22. precursors of eating disorders
    three D's
    • body dissatisfaction
    • dieting
    • drive for thinness
  23. stats
    • 81% of 10 year olds afraid of being fat
    • 42% 1-3rd grade girls want to be thinner
    • children concerned about body image at 4-5 are dieting by age 9
    • 40% of nine ear olds have already dieted, early as 4-5 year olds want to
    • 51% of 9-10 year olds feel better when dieting
    • 9% of 9 year olds have vomited
    • 20% of elementary girls starve themselves
    • 24% skip meals
    • 40% 4th graders say they've dieted very often
    • 46% of 9 year olds and 81% of 10 year olds admit to dieting, etc
    • as young as 4
    • children of anorexic mothers were already depressed, whiny, dysfunctional eating at 5
    • sporty girls have concerns ages 5-7
  24. relationship to learning
    • impaired memory
    • decreased attentiveness
    • slowed reaction time
    • impaired thinking
    • impaired ability to do school work
  25. early warning signals in young children
    • refusing typical family foods
    • skipping meals
    • i'm too fat, she's too fat
    • withdrawal from friends
    • clothing issues
    • preoccupation with food
    • abnormal eating habits
    • feelings of isolation, depression, or irritability, inability to express feelings
    • parents who exhibit similar feelings/behaviors
    • low self-esteem, self confidence
  26. what can adults do to help prevent dating disorders?
    • encourage physical activity
    • no teasing about appearance
    • build self-esteem; value
    • provide a broad range of food and respect appetite
    • keep food in its place, fuel for body and health
    • do not use food as punishment or reward
    • promote self confidence, esteem expression of feelings
    • show respect for diversity
    • food is neither good or bad
  27. goals for young children
    • develop healthy eating habits
    • develop positive attitudes toward foods and eating
    • enjoy a variety
    • develop in a holistic manner-cognitive, physical, emotional, social
  28. nutrition education
    activities that impart information about food and its use in the body
  29. concepts
    combinations of basic and related factual information that represent a more generalized statement or idea.
  30. children must have food to grow and to have healthy bodies
    • all animals and plants need food
    • eating food helps children grow, play, learn and be happy
    • many foods are good for us
    • eating food makes us feel good
  31. nutrients come from food
    • after food is eaten, these nutrients are set free to work in our bodies
    • nutrients do different things
    • many different nutrients are needed each day
    • foods are the sources of all of the nutrients we need
  32. variety of foods need to be eaten each day
    • different foods provide different nutrients so we need to eat lots of kinds
    • need to work together
    • children should explore how foods differ
  33. foods must be carefully handled
    • cleanliness of all materials is important
    • some foods need to be cooked
    • involving children helps with teaching
    • eating food that hasn't been handled properly can make them sick
  34. parental involvement
    • weekly posting of menus
    • provide parents with report of recipes, new foods
    • ask for parental feedback on child's reactions
    • present evening meetings and workshops
    • accompany children to food-related field trips
    • eat lunch with them
    • help plan menus
    • share recipes
  35. activities foster development
    • promotion of language development
    • promotion of cognitive development
    • promotion of sensorimotor development
    • promotion of social/emotional development
  36. steps to planning a nutrition education activity
    • why
    • what
    • how
    • when
    • do the activity
    • follow-up after activity
Card Set
Pediatric Nutrition
Dr. Wlson