RPTS 202

  1. Superior Quality
    • Higher prices
    • Higher Market share
    • Loyalty
  2. Tourism as a Theatrical Production
    • "play"
    • role expectations
    • service areas that guest experience
    • backstage hands
    • front stage actors
  3. Factors of Quality
    • Word of Mouth
    • Personal desires
    • Past experiences
    • Marketing messages
  4. Demand for Excellence
    All employees must be committed to delivering value

    Empower employees to foster innovative thoughts

    Everyone is accountable for the organizations success

    All employees must be motivated to excel
  5. Methods that ensure quality
    learn and understand customer wants

    emphasize team goals

    select and train the right people
  6. Know what causes service mistakes
    Service mistakes happen when service script is broken
  7. Service recovery
    L-LISTEN: to what the guest has to say

    A-ACKNOWLEDGE: let the guest know the problem is important

    U-UNDERSTAND: show empathy by reiterating the problem

    G-GIVE SOLUTIONS: allow the guest to choose from solutions

    H-HIT HOME: follow up after recovery
  8. Know what a good service guarantee entails
    Must be unconditional

    Should be easy to understand/communicate

    Should be meaningful

    Should be easy to collect restitution

    Compensation should be appropriate
  9. Moments of truth/Critical incidences
    There are two categories of breaking from a script, positive and negative change from which the customer expects
  10. Restitution
    an amount of money or other item given to make up for some mistake or wrongdoing
  11. Perceived Service Quality
    the quality that customers develop after comparing their original expectations to the service quality factors during their experience-- this leads to their satisfaction level
  12. Service Script
    learned patterns of behavior that guide interactions during a service
  13. Economics
    the social science that seeks to understand the choices people make in using their scarce resources to meet their wants

    Quantity of life
  14. Politics
    power or decisions about "who gets what,where,how, and why"

    Quality of life
  15. Variables for extimatin tourism activity (economic impact)
    • # of visitors
    • $ spent per visitor
  16. Comparative advantage
    Yields higher returns than other industries

    • Occurs when:
    • -the area is especially appealing (super/infrastructure)

    -If there is no other alternatives
  17. Opportunity cost
    What you give up, for what you purchase= you need to maximize return
  18. Output Multiplier Effect
    When new $ is re-spent in local economy

    Leakage= $ that leaves the economy

    Canada= 2.5; Iceland= .64
  19. Economic Benefits of Tourism
    Tourism $'s are stable

    Economic Diversity

    Economic incentive to improve

    Encourages Entrepreneurial Activity
  20. Roles in government
    Jobs are created for tourism & employees

    More tax $ is collected because of tourism

    Can aid tourism through infrastructure development
  21. Know the various taxes associate with tourism
    More tax money is collected because of tourism..from:

    • -lodging tax:percent of sales, be tax
    • -meals tax
    • -automobile rental tax: % of sales, per day assesment
  22. Public/Private Partnership
    An organization whose members include government officials as well as private citizens

    • -govt. funds infrastructure
    • -partners fund superstructure

    • Examples:
    • -chambers and cvbs
    • -convention centers
  23. Process of tourism planning
    -Determine tourism development policies and objectives

    -suvery and inventory existing situation

    -Recomend specific projects

    -Implement the projects

    -Monitor plan to see if objectives need to change

    -Modify plan as new objectives become important
  24. "Tugs of War" over tourism means, potential groups
    • constituent groups fighting over the finite amount of potential resources:
    • -business owners
    • -employees of tourism businesses
    • -other business owners/managers/employees
    • -taxpayers
    • -local community/region citizens
    • -tourists
  25. Direct/Indirect/Induced Effects
    Direct impacts: $ initially spent

    Indirect Impact: portion of $ circulated through

    Induced Impact: portion of direct $ goes to employees and spend locally
  26. What causes multipliers to be high or low
    Leakage: purchasing power that is spent on imports to an area, resulting in a transfer of income out of the local economy
  27. Comparative Advantage
    the benefits of one alternative relative to another
  28. Privatization
    the action of converting a government-owned business to a private ownership
  29. Multiplier
    the additional economic activity that results when money is spend and respent in a reguion from the purchase of local goods and services
  30. Carrying capacity
    Physical capacity: limit on actual # of users that can be accommodated in a region

    Environmental Capacity: limit on # of users before a destination is undesirable

    Ecological Capacity: max level of users in an area, before ecological damage is incurred
  31. Know the variables used to determine carrying capacities
    • # of visitors
    • Amount of use per visitor
    • Quality of resource mgmt design
    • # of area residents and their needs
    • # of other users of the resources
  32. Know how imagery, expectations, and satisfaction are related
  33. Know what environmental images result from
    Result from cofnitive maps- perception of place, when not there (marketing)
  34. Be able to explain the differences between induced and organic images
    Organic- developed through visitation, pictures, friends

    Induced- generated through marketing
  35. Be able to explain how society and culture are related
    Culture= practices of a society
  36. Know how tourism can positively affect culture
    More money for a community

    Bring people together= peace, new tastes

    Increases "critical mass"

    Can preserve historical/natural sites
  37. Seven consequences of tourism
    Social carrying capacity

    Demonstration effect

    Loss of Culture and traditional jobs

    Best jobs go to foreigners

    Crime and moral character change

    Loss or change of language

  38. Explain the principles and benefits of ecotourism
    • Principles:
    • -Blend in with local culture
    • -Focus on existing scenic/ activity opps
    • -Local ownership/mngmt of services
    • -high proportion of local materials used
    • -resource conservation=ecotechniques

    • Benefits:
    • -government is more likely to fun
    • -jobs are created for tourism and employees
    • -more tax $ is collected b/c of tourism
    • -can aid tourism through infrastructure
    • -Govt' funds infrastructure and partners fund superstructure
  39. Mass Tourism
    • Large
    • Unplanned
    • Uncontrolled
    • Poor labor education
    • Scattered dvlpmt.
    • $$ to multi-national
  40. Alternative
    • Small scale
    • Planned
    • Controlled
    • Preservation
    • Local Development
    • $$ stays local
    • Shared Benefits
  41. Know how tourism can ve viewed as a "Positive Force"
    • Fosters conservation of wildland
    • Fosters conservation of wildlife
    • Preserves historic buildings
    • Communities prosper=rejuvenates
    • City Center
  42. Authenticity
    the feel or flavor; really seeing and experiencing a place
  43. Culture
    the practices of a society, its customary beliefs, social roles, and material objects
  44. Emerged authenticity
    over time
  45. Mass Tourism
    20th century phenomenon where the working and middle classes began traveling in large numbers for leisure purposes
  46. Environmental cap
    the limit on the number of users that an area can accommodate before visitors perceive a decline in the desirability of an area
  47. ecotourists
    leisure travelers who prefer to visit less popular, more primitive destinations
  48. Carrying capacity
    a key concept in the environmental impact analysis that relates to the amount of use an environment is capable of sustaining under certain circumstances
  49. Acculturation
    two cultures meet and the dominate culture changes the less dominate
  50. Future tourism markets are predicted to be:
    • Mass Markets: "one size fits all"
    • -in developing countries

    • Highly focused services "customizing"
    • -for specific niche markets

    • Demographic shifts (helps/hurts who?)
    • -Boomers (computer users) Ethinic mis, disabled travelers, business/conference travel, ecotourism
  51. Know the various ways we will meet future tourists needs
    • microsegmentation
    • -making markets more specific

    • mass customization
    • -fulfilling unique needs of individuals buyers

    Database marketing

    Competitive cooperation
  52. Know the differences between adventure tourism and extreme tourism
    adventure: normal things such as hiking, skiing, camping

    extreme: rock climbing, ski diving, things that are above adverage challenge and risk
  53. Abraham Pizam thinks that tourism will be like _____ in 2050:
    • Environment:
    • Alternative sources of energy
    • Pollution taxed
    • Mandatory recycling, reduce packing, h2o conserv

    • Demographic:
    • 1% increase in pop. per year
    • india will overtake china

    • Education:
    • Teaching will be virtual
    • Libraries electronic

    • Shopping:
    • Virtual

    • Tech:
    • Genetic engineering
    • Human colonies on moon and mars
    • Molecular nanotechnology

    • Increase in standard of living:
    • developing countries are big players (India)
    • Tourism by far #1 industry

    • Atractions:
    • space tourism, underwater resorts, sub cruises, specialized resort

    • Areas of expansion:
    • pharmological destinations, adventure travel

    • Transportation:
    • Rocket & supersonic travel; moving sidewalks
  54. Know reasons why researchers conduct research, related to each of the 4 P's
    • Product:
    • -increase, decrease, alter
    • -determine service and product demand
    • -identify and describe surrent and prosp. guests

    Place (location decisions)

    Pricing (optimal strategy)

  55. Know the differences between primary and secondary research
    • Primary:
    • -observation
    • -experimentation
    • -surveys

    • Secondary:
    • -advantage=time and money
    • -disadvantage= quality is often suspect
Card Set
RPTS 202