1. What is an Isotope?
    Atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
  2. Hydrophobic
    Molecules that do not readily dissolve in water (nonpolar)
  3. What is an Acid?
    A substance that loses hydrogen ions in solution; pH less than 7
  4. Anaerobic
    chemical reactions that do not require oxygen
  5. What is a substrate?
    a molecule that is specifically recognized and acted upon by an enzyme (the starting materials in an enzyme reaction)
  6. Pigment
    Molecules that capture light energy, usually absorbing some wavelengths and reflecting others
  7. What is an infection?
    successful colonization of a host species by another organism.
  8. What is an Endemic Disease?
    diseases that are more or less always present in a population but are confined to a small part of it
  9. Definition of Mitosis
    cell division that results in 2 daughter cells that have the same genetic information as each other and as the parent cell
  10. Definition of Asexual Reproduction.
    a type of reproduction that does not result from meiosis and the fusion of egg and sperm cells
  11. Definition of a karyotype
    a picture or map of a cell's chromosomes arranged into their homologous pairs
  12. Definition of Autosome.
    all the pairs of chromosomes of the cell that are not involved in sex determination
  13. What is Codon?
    three nitrogenous bases that code for a particular amino acid.
  14. What is a genome?
    The full complement of genetic information of an organism (i.e., all of its genes and other DNA)
  15. Definition of Alelle.
    A particular form of a gene
  16. What is Genetic Engineering?
    The ability to manipulate genes and move them from one organism to another
  17. Pairs of chromosomes in normal cells that are usually the same size and shape and contain information about the same traits of an organism
    Homologous Chromosomes
  18. Spread of cancer cells beyond their initial location
  19. The first cell of a new organism (a fertilized egg cell
  20. The amino acid translations of each of the codons
    Genetic Code
  21. Type of enzyme that is used to cut DNA molecules
    Restriction enzyme
  22. When we see a trait of an organism that shows continuous variation (like the length of the beak of a duck) and we graph out the measurements of that trait from many individuals, what will the graph look like?
    Bell Curve
  23. What are the 3 nucleotides that are found in both DNA and RNA.
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
  24. In cats, long tails are dominant and short tails are recessive. If “L” represents the dominant allele and “l” represents the recessive, what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of a cross between a heterozygous cat with a homozygous recessive cat? What are the possible Genotypes, & Phenotypes?
    • Genotypes: Ll & ll
    • Phenotypes: Long Tails, and Short tails.
  25. The phenotype of an organism is the result of the genetic information it has inherited and what other factor?
  26. Briefly explain why a mutation in a gene that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide is so dangerous.
    causes a “framshift” so that all codons after the insertion or deletion can code for incorrect amino acids during translation
  27. In humans, free ear lobes are dominant and attached ear lobes are recessive. Let F stand for the allele that codes for free ear lobes and f represent the allele for attached ear lobes. A mother with attached ear lobes has a daughter with free ear lobes. What is (are) the possible genotype(s) of the father?
    FF or Ff
  28. Frederick Griffith was responsible for an important experiment that led to the discovery of DNA as the genetic molecule. He used mice, a disease causing strain of pneumonia bacteria (smooth or s-strain) and a strain of pneumonia that did not cause disease (rough or r-strain). He injected mice with the disease causing strain (s-strain) and all the mice died. What were his 3 other experiments with the mice and bacteria?
    • Injected mice with the nonpathogenic (r-strain) and all the mice lived.
    • Injected mice with heat killed disease causing strain (s-strain) and all the mice lived.
    • Injected mice with a combination of the nonpathogenic (r-strain) and heat killed disease causing strain (s-strain) and all the mice died. The bacteria collected from the dead animals was all disease causing strain (s-strain)
  29. One use of mitosis in multicellular organisms is to allow body growth. What are two other things that mitosis is used for?
    Cell replacement, tissue repair, or asexual reproduction
  30. What are the last names of the two scientists that discovered the double helix structure of DNA and provided the mechanism for DNA replication?
    Watson & Crick
  31. The sequencing of human DNA was accomplished in 2000. About how many protein encoding genes have been identified for humans and how does that information compare to the entire human genome?
    Humans have approximately 20-25,000 genes (over 80% of human DNA is non-coding!)
  32. Bacterial cells which produce human insulin is one example of genetic engineering. Give 2 additional examples of this technology.
    Many examples possible – herbicide resistance introduced into crops (Round-up ready soybeans); crops that produce their own insecticides (BT corn); rice that makes vitamin A; sheep that make a human protein that treats emphysema in their milk, glow-in-the-dark rabbits, etc.
  33. Commensalism
    symbiotic relationship where one species benefits while the other is neither helped nor harmed
  34. population
    members of one species in a particular area
  35. Species (Biological Species Concept)
    a population or group of populations that interbreed freely in the wild and does not interbreed with other populations and which can produce fertile offspring
  36. Ecology
    the study of the interactions between living things and other living things and their physical environment
  37. Genetic Drift
    evolution due to chance events alone
  38. Ecological Succession
    process of community change which occurs in an area after disturbance
  39. Trophic Levels
    feeding levels within an ecosystem
  40. Aposematic Coloration
    warning coloration
  41. Type of cloning that is performed to make replacement cells or organs (NOT to produce living offspring)
    therapeutic cloning
  42. An evolutionary convergence in body form, in which one species benefits by its resemblance to another
  43. A species’ functional role within an ecosystem (includes all living and nonliving things that the organism uses and all the living things that use or are affected by the given species)
  44. Transfer of normal or modified genes into particular cells of a multicellular organism, often with the intent to correct a genetic defect (e.g. girl with a genetic defect that causes her white blood cells to make an incorrect protein – white blood cells from the girl are removed, the defective gene is corrected, then the white blood cells are returned – her blood cells now make the correct protein)
    Gene Therapy
  45. Organisms that obtain their energy-storing molecules by eating other organisms
  46. Briefly explain the difference between prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanisms.
    prezygotic isolation occurs before fertilization of the egg while postzygotic occurs after a zygote is formed
  47. What is the “competitive exclusion principle”?
    If two species are competing with one another for the same limited resource, the species able to use that resource most efficiently will eventually eliminate the other species in that location
  48. What are the two basic strategies that plants use to defend themselves against predators?
    physical (e.g. thorns & needles) or chemical (allelochemics or toxins)
  49. One of the basic observations about living things that the “Theory of Evolution through Natural Selection” relies upon is inheritable variation (or “organisms show variation in their structures and behaviors that are inherited”). What is the other?
    overproduction of offspring
  50. Briefly explain the “Big Bang” theory of the formation of the universe.
    Approximately 13 – 15 billion years ago the entire universe existed as a small point which blew up in a massive explosion we call the “Big Bang”. The universe continues to expand out from that beginning point.
  51. Miller & Urey are credited with early experimentation dealing with the question of the origin of life on the planet Earth. What did they show in their experiments?
    These scientists wondered if organic molecules could have spontaneously formed from inorganic molecules. They enclosed a possible mix of inorganic chemicals that could have been present in Earth's atmosphere at the time that life first came into being and added an energy source (an electrical spark) to these chemicals. After a short period of time they examined the materials in their experiment and found that complex organic molecules (such as amino acids) had spontaneously formed from the mixture
  52. Briefly describe the process of ecological succession that would occur in a patch of mowed backyard grass if it was left alone for the next 50+ years.
    The plants and animals that live in the mowed grass would gradually change over time to form a field, then a shrubby forest, then turn into a forest (the climax community of this area)
  53. Give 2 possible solutions that may help to slow the rapid rise of human populations. (other than requiring people to have fewer children)
    Increase age of first childbearing; increase age before marriage; increase education and work opportunities for women; make birth control and sex education available to women
  54. The fossil record serves as one type of evidence for evolution. List the two other types of evidence that are used to support evolutionary hypotheses.
    Anatomical record & molecular record
  55. During a specified interval, population size is an outcome of 4 events happening to that population. One of these is the “number of births”. What are the other three?
    Number of deaths; immigration; and emigration
  56. World's human population from 1650-2000 AD
    • 1650 - 1/2 billion
    • 1850 - 1 billion
    • 1930 - 2 billion
    • 1970 - 4 billion
    • 2000 - 6 billion
  57. Biodiversity
    the number of different species in an area and their relative abundance
  58. Endangered species
    Species which is in imminent danger of becoming extinct in the wild.
  59. Endemic species
    species which inhabit a small area and are found nowhere else.
  60. Biological magnification
    the tendency for toxic substances to build up in progressively higher levels of a food chain.
  61. Ozone
    an unstable molecular form of oxygen where 3 oxygen atoms are bonded together instead of the normal 2.
  62. Global warming
    a worldwide increase in temperature resulting from increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
  63. Greenhouse effect
    the blocking of outward heat radiation from the atmosphere by a group of chemicals known as greenhouse gases.
  64. CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons)
    A group of man-made chemicals that release chlorine when they break down and have a great destructive effect on the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer.
  65. Major gases of the Earth's atmosphere.
    • 99% Nitrogen & Oxygen
    • 1% everything else
  66. In the space below, draw a simple energy pyramid that illustrates the relationship between 1) producers, 2) primary consumers, 3) secondary consumers and 4) tertiary consumers in an ecosystem
    • bottom rectangle longest - producers
    • next rectangle above smaller - primary consumers
    • next - secondary consumers
    • top rectangle (smallest) - tertiary consumers
  67. Cloning
    A line of cells, all of which have arisen from the same single cell by mitotic division. One of a population of individuals derived by asexual reproduction from a single ancestor. One of a population of genetically identical individuals.
  68. Evolution
    Genetic change in a population of organisms over time (generations). Darwin proposed that natural selection was the mechanism of evolution.
  69. Ecosystem
    A community, together with the nonliving factors with which it interacts.
  70. Mutation
    A change in a cell's genetic message.
  71. Mutualism
    A symbiotic relationship in which both participating species benefit.
  72. Symbiosis
    The condition in which two or more dissimilar organisms live together in close association; includes parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism.
  73. Parasitism
    A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
  74. Predation
    The eating of other organisms. The one doing the eating is called a predator, and the one being consumed is called the prey.
  75. Community
    The populations of different species that live together and interact in a particular place.
  76. Coevolution
    A term that describes the long-term evolutionary adjustment of one group of organisms to another.
  77. Habitat
    The place where individuals of a species live.
  78. Food Web
    The food relationships within a community. A diagram of who eats whom.
  79. Chromosom
    The vehicle by which hereditary information is physically transmitted from one generation to the next. In a eukaryotic cell, long threads of DNA that are associated with protein and that contain hereditary information.
  80. Cancer
    Unrestrained invasive cell growth. A tumor or cell mass resulting from uncontrollable cell division.
  81. Codominance
    In genetics, a situation in which the effects of both alleles at a particular locus are apparent in the phenotype of the heterozygote.
  82. Fertilization
    The union of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
  83. Meiosis
    A special form of nuclear division that precedes gamete formation in sexually reproducing eukaryotes. It results in four haploid daughter cells.
  84. Gene
    The basic unit of heredity. A sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome that encodes a polypeptide or RNA molecule and so determines the nature of an individual's inherited traits.
  85. Genetics
    The study of the way in which an individual's traits are transmitted from one generation to the next.
  86. Gene Expression
    The process in which an RNA copy of each active gene is made, and the RNA copy directs the sequential assembly of a chain of amino acids at a ribosome.
  87. Phenotype
    The realized expression of the genotype. The observable expression of a trait (affecting an individual's structure, physiology, or behavior) that results from the biological activity of proteins or RNA molecules transcribed from the DNA.
  88. Pleitropy
    A gene that produces more than one phenotypic effect.
  89. Recessive Alelle
    An allele whose phenotype effects are masked in heterozygotes by the presence of a dominant allele.
  90. Translation
    The second stage of gene expression in which a ribosome assembles a polypeptide, using the mRNA to specify the amino acids.
  91. Transcription
    The first stage of gene expression in which the RNA polymerase enzyme synthesizes an mRNA molecule whose sequence is complementary to the DNA.
  92. Ribosome
    A cell structure composed of protein and RNA that translates RNA copies of genes into protein.
  93. Karyotype
    The particular array of chromosomes that an individual possesses.
  94. Sex Chromosome
    In humans, the X and Y chromosomes, which are different in the two sexes and are involved in sex determination.
  95. Nondisjunction
    The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate in meiosis I. The cause of Down syndrome.
  96. Dominant Allele
    An allele that dictates the appearance of heterozygotes. One allele is said to be dominant over another if an individual heterozygous for that allele has the same appearance as an individual homozygous for it.
  97. Incomplete Dominance
    The ability of two alleles to produce a heterozygous phenotype that is different from either homozygous phenotype.
  98. Sexual Reproduction
    Reproduction that involves the regular alternation between syngamy and meiosis. Its outstanding characteristic is that an individual offspring inherits genes from two parent individuals.
  99. Substrate
    A molecule on which an enzyme acts.
  100. Proton
    A subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom that carries a positive charge. The number of protons determines the chemical character of the atom because it dictates the number of electrons orbiting the nucleus and available for chemical activity.
  101. pH
    Refers to the concentration of H+ ions in a solution. The numerical value of the pH is the negative of the exponent of the molar concentration. Low pH values indicate high concentrations of H+ ions (acids), and high pH values indicate low concentrations (bases).
  102. Prokaryote
    A simple organism that is small, single-celled, and has little evidence of internal structure.
  103. Photosynthesis
    The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use the energy of sunlight to create from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) the more complicated molecules that make up living organisms.
  104. Pigment
    A molecule that absorbs light.
  105. Hypothesis
    A proposal that might be true. No hypothesis is ever proven correct. All hypotheses are provisional—proposals that are retained for the time being as useful but that may be rejected in the future if found to be inconsistent with new information. A hypothesis that stands the test of time—often tested and never rejected—is called a theory.
  106. Hydrophilic
    Describes polar molecules, which form hydrogen bonds with water and therefore are soluble in water.
  107. Hydrophobic
    Describes nonpolar molecules, which do not form hydrogen bonds with water and therefore are not soluble in water.
  108. Neutron
    A subatomic particle located within the nucleus of an atom. Similar to a proton in mass, but as its name implies, a neutron is neutral and possesses no charge.
  109. Electron
    A subatomic particle with a negative electrical charge. The negative charge of one electron exactly balances the positive charge of one proton. Electrons orbit the atom's positively charged nucleus and determine its chemical properties.
  110. Element
    A substance that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary chemical methods.
  111. Eukaryote
    A cell that possesses membrane-bounded organelles, most notably a cell nucleus, and chromosomes whose DNA is associated with proteins; an organism composed of such cells. The appearance of eukaryotes marks a major event in the evolution of life, as all organisms on earth other than bacteria and archaea are eukaryotes.
  112. Enzyme
    A protein capable of speeding up specific chemical reactions by lowering the energy required to activate or start the reaction but that remains unaltered in the process.
  113. Atom
    A core (nucleus) of protons and neutrons surrounded by an orbiting cloud of electrons. The chemical behavior of an atom is largely determined by the distribution of its electrons, particularly the number of electrons in its outermost level.
  114. Acid
    Any substance that dissociates to form H+ ions when dissolved in water. Having a pH value less than 7.
  115. Aerobic
  116. Anaerobic
    Any process that can occur without oxygen. Includes glycolysis and fermentation. Anaerobic organisms can live without free oxygen.
  117. Carbohydrate
    An organic compound consisting of a chain or ring of carbon atoms to which hydrogen and oxygen atoms are attached in a ratio of approximately 1:2:1. A compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen having the generalized formula (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbon atoms.
  118. Cell
    The smallest unit of life. The basic organizational unit of all organisms. Composed of a nuclear region containing the hereditary apparatus within a larger volume called the cytoplasm bounded by a lipid membrane.
  119. Cellular resppiration
    The process in which the energy stored in a glucose molecule is released by oxidation. Hydrogen atoms are lost by glucose and gained by oxygen.
  120. ion
    An atom in which the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons. An ion carries an electrical charge.
  121. Isotope
    An atom that has the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
  122. Organelle
    A specialized compartment of a cell. Mitochondria are organelles.
  123. Variable
    Any factor that influences a process. In evaluating alternative hypotheses about one variable, all other variables are held constant so that the investigator is not misled or confused by other influences.
  124. Theory
    A well-tested hypothesis supported by a great deal of evidence.
  125. Molecule
    The smallest unit of a compound that displays the properties of that compound.
  126. Fermentation
    A catabolic process in which the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule.
  127. Protein
    A long chain of amino acids linked end to end by peptide bonds. Because the 20 amino acids that occur in proteins have side groups with very different chemical properties, the function and shape of a protein is critically affected by its particular sequence of amino acids.
  128. Soluble
    Refers to polar molecules that dissolve in water and are surrounded by a hydration shell.
  129. Base
    Any substance that combines with H+ ions thereby reducing the H+ ion concentration of a solution. Having a pH value above 7.
  130. Buffer
    A substance that takes up or releases hydrogen ions (H+) to maintain the pH within a certain range.
  131. Nucleic Acid
    A nucleotide polymer. A long chain of nucleotides. Chief types are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is double-stranded, and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which is typically single-stranded.
  132. Lipid
    A loosely defined group of molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in oil. Oils such as olive, corn, and coconut are lipids, as well as waxes, such as beeswax and earwax.
  133. Stages of the Scientific Investigation
    • Observation
    • Hypothesis
    • Predictions
    • Testing
    • Controls
    • Conclusion
  134. The Oganization of Life (Cellular Level)
    • atoms
    • molecules
    • macromolecules
    • organelles
    • cells
  135. The Organization of Life (Organismal level)
    • tissues
    • organs
    • organ systems
    • organism
  136. The Organization of Life )Population Level)
    • population
    • species
    • community
    • ecosystem
  137. Properties of Life
    • Cellular organization
    • metabolism
    • homeostasis
    • growth and reproduction
    • heredity
  138. Infection
    successful colonization of a host species by another organism
  139. Disease
    illness caused by infection, diet, or environmental factors
  140. Sporadic Disease
    diseases that break out irregularly among very few individuals in a population
  141. Endemic Disease
    diseases that are more or less always present in a population but are confined to a small part of it
  142. Epidemic
    when a disease quickly spreads through part of a population for a limited time then subsides
  143. Pandemic
    many epidemics of the same disease breaking out in severalcountries during the same interval
  144. General Formula for Photosynthesis
    6 CO2 + 12 H2O + light energy ----> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
  145. The Cell Theory
    All organisms are composed of one or more cells
  146. First law of thermodynamics
    energy can change from one state to another but it can never be destroyed, nor can new energy be made (the total amount of energy in the universe remains constant)
  147. Human activities linked with extinction
    • habitat loss
    • species overexploitation
    • species introductions
  148. Factors leading to the destruction of rain forests
    growing human populations and poverty; agriculture; cattle ranching; logging (note: most of these involve aspects of habitat destruction)
  149. Kyoto World Climate Treaty
    worldwide treaty to slow and stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, 1st draft in 1997
  150. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
    Human made chemicals, and are major destroyers of the ozone layer.
  151. Dangers of ozone depletion
    increase in human skin cancer; reduction of photosynthesis; etc.
  152. Montreal Protocol
    An international agreement has been signed by most countries of the world to phase out the manufacture and use of CFCs
  153. Current trends in HUman growth
    • average population growth in developing
    • countries is much higher than in developed countries
    • no single answer to carrying capacity of Earth
    • for humans - depends on the quality of life that people desire and are willing to accept
    • most estimates suggest that the human population
    • will reach between 10-16 billion before stabilizing most estimates suggest that human populations
    • will reach this level in the next 50-100 years
  154. the primordial (beginning) atmosphere
    similar to volcanic gasses with no molecular oxygen
  155. DNA Fingerprint
    use in forensic science, each person has their own unique DNA sequence
  156. Genetic Engineering
    • Human proteins manufactured in bacteria cells for medical treatments
    • Plants that produce their own sectides
    • Plants that are resistant to specific herbicides
    • Crops that are more nutritious
    • Ethical considerations
  157. Dolly
    A sheep, the first cloned offspring from an adult cell
  158. Therapeutic Cloning
    involves initiating blastocyst evelopment from a patient's tissue using nuclear transplant procedures, then using the blastocyst's embryonic stem cells to replace the patient's damaged or lost tissue.
  159. Reproductive Cloning vs. Therapeutic Cloning
    Therapeutic cloning differs from reproductive cloning in that after the initial similar stages, embryonic stem cells from the early embryo are extracted, grown in culture, and added to a tissue of the individual who provided the nucleus.
  160. Gene transfer therapy
    In principle, it should be possible to cure hereditary disorders like cystic fibrosis by transferring a healthy gene into the cells of affected tissues.
  161. Charles Darwin
    provides the idea of “descent with modification” and the mechanism that causes change over time – natural selection (he published his ideas in the book: On the Origin of Species)
  162. Conclusion in Natural Selection
    Nature decides which variations are the best for survival and reproduction. Those with the “best” variations will survive and reproduce while those with less desirable variations will die and their undesirable variations will not be passed on to the next generation
  163. Natural Selection (Remember)
    passing variations (genes or alleles) forward in time (reproductive success) is the key for being evolutionarily successful!
  164. 5 Agents of Evolution
    • Mutation
    • Migration
    • Denetic Drift
    • Nonrandom Mating
    • Selection
  165. Mutation
    the ultimate source of genetic variation in a population
  166. 2 different types of migration
    immigration and emigration
  167. Genetic drift effect often associated with...
    size of the population
  168. Nonrandom Mating
    Sexual Selection
  169. Types of Selection
    • stabilizing
    • disruptive
    • directional selection
  170. Origin of Life
    experiments show that organic molecules that serve as the building blocks of life can form spontaneously, as can cell-like structures (first steps toward the origin of life)
  171. Louis Lerman hypothesis
    of life first forming in bubbles on the ocean’s surface
  172. What was the first type of life on the planet?
    Prokaryotic life
  173. Animal defenses
    aposomatic and cryptic coloration
  174. Predation reduces...
  175. Close interactions between species can lead to...
  176. Primary succession occurs in...
    habitats more or less devoid of life
  177. Secondary succession occurs in...
    areas where an existing community has been severely disturbed
  178. How much available energy passes from one trophic level to the next?
    Only 5% to 20%
  179. An organism’s trophic level describes...
    how many steps it is from the ecosystem’s energy source (usually the sun)
  180. Ecologists measure...
    the amount of energy and nutrients that enter an ecosystem, the amounts captured, and the proportions stored in each trophic level
  181. Charles Lyell
    geologist who stated that the Earth was much older than previously thought, that change occurred gradually over long periods of time, and that the same forces involved with change at present worked the same way in the past and will work the same way in the future
  182. Describe Mitosis
    • Exact replication of the cell’s chromosomes (genetic information)
    • Daughter cells have the same genetic information as each other
    • Daughter cells have the same genetic information as the parent cell
    • Cytoplasmic division result in two cells from the original starting cell
  183. Describe Chromosomes
    Composed of DNA and protein molecules

    There is a constant chromosome number within an organism’s body cells

    There is a constant chromosome number within a given species of organism

    Most eukaryotic multicellular organisms have their chromosomes occurring in pairs (homologous chromosomes) in their body cells
  184. Cancer
    Results when cells lose control over their replication cycle, getting stuck in mitosis
  185. Rain forests cover what percent of the earth's surface?
  186. What % dor rainforests hold of the earth's species?
  187. Ozone holes
    (zones of lower than normal ozone concentration) have formed over the Earth’s polar areas, especially the South Pole
  188. Copenhagen Accord
    • Industrial countries must list their individual emissions reductions targets, and less-industrialized countries must list the actions they will take to cut emissions by specific amounts.
    • All countries must accept a transparent system for monitoring their emissions.
    • Poor countries will be paid to prevent deforestation.
    • Wealthy nations will establish a fund (growing from 30 billion dollars per year to $100 billion per year by 2020) to help poor and vulnerable nations adapt to climate change.
    • Signatory nations accept a goal of limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius by 2050.
    • The Accord creates a Technology Mechanism to accelerate development of low-carbon technology, but supplies no details.
  189. COP16
    COP16 is the official name of the Cancún summit, which is the 16th Conference of the Parties (COP) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  190. what adds to greenhouse gases and lead to global warming?
    Fossil fuel burning and other human activities
  191. Main human produced greenhouse gas
    carbon dioxide
  192. Why do CO2 levels fluctuate up and down each year?
    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide fluctuate slightly with the change of the seasons, driven primarily by seasonal plant growth in the Northern Hemisphere. Concentrations of carbon dioxide fall during the northern spring and summer as plants consume the gas, and rise during the northern autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay.
  193. Alcoholic fermentation
    • An anaerobic reaction
    • Glucose converted to carbon dioxide and ethanol
    • Only a net production of 2 ATP
  194. Where does Aerobic respiration occur?
    in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, but most energytransferred to ATP in the mitochondria
  195. Energy is released from glucose when...
    • it is broken apart and the energy is
    • transferred to molecules of ATP
  196. Plasma membrane
    A lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that control the cell's permeability to water and dissolved substances.
  197. Nucleus
    A spherical organelle (structure) characteristic of eukaryotic cells. The repository of the genetic information that directs all activities of a living cell. In atoms, the central core, containing positively charged protons and (in all but hydrogen) electrically neutral neutrons.
  198. Mitochondria
    A tubular or sausage-shaped organelle 1 to 3 micrometers long. Bounded by two membranes, mitochondria closely resemble the aerobic bacteria from which they were originally derived. As chemical furnaces of the cell, they carry out its oxidative metabolism
  199. Ribosome
    A cell structure composed of protein and RNA that translates RNA copies of genes into protein.
  200. Chloroplast
    A cell-like organelle present in algae and plants that contains chlorophyll (and usually other pigments) and is the site of photosynthesis.
  201. Second law of thermodynamics
    disorder in a closed system like the universe is continuously increasing (entropy increases)
  202. Lipids
    large nonpolar molecules that are insoluble in water.
  203. Different types of liquids
    fats & oils, phospholipids, sterols and waxes
  204. Polysacharides
    such as starch and glycogen provide a means of storing energy in the cell.
  205. Disaccharides
    sucrose & lactose
  206. Structural support (in plants and animals)
    cellulose (plants) & chitin (animals)
  207. Energy storage in plants and animals
    starch (plants) & glycogen (animals)
  208. Jean Lamarck
    a predecessor of Darwin, proposed an explanation of evolution. (theory of acquired traits)
  209. What do the number of protons tell us?
    Which Element name
  210. Unlike most matter, water is _______as a solid
    Less Dense
  211. Water
    • States of matter: solid, liquid, gas & relation to temperature
    • Water as a polar solvent
  212. Amino acids
    the monomers (building blocks) for proteins
  213. Levels of protein structure
    • primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
    • structure
  214. Nucleic Acids
    • a. Nucleotides – the monomers (building blocks) of nucleic acids
    • b. DNA and RNA basic structure as polymers of nucleotides
  215. Carbohydrates
    • a. Monosaccharides – the simplest carbohydrates and monomers (building
    • blocks) for more complex carbohydrates (e.g. glucose & fructose)
    • b. Disaccharides (e.g. sucrose & lactose)
  216. Natural selection Observation (1)
    organisms show variation in their structures and behaviors that are inherited
  217. In an ecosystem energy flows in one way through
    organisms while....
    nutrients are cycled among organisms
  218. messenger RNA
    a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product
  219. messenger RNA
    a small RNA molecule (usually about 74-95 nucleotides) that transfers a specific active amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation.
  220. Describe Mitosis
    • This process is the basis of gamete (sperm & egg) formation in sexual reproduction
    • Daughter cells have half the normal number of chromosomes
    • Daughter cells have one of each type of chromosome (no homologous pairs)
    • Daughter cells can be different from each other (in terms of the genetic information they hold) and different from the parent cell
    • Entails two division events and results in 4 cells from the original starting cell
  221. Describe Fertilization
    • Return to the normal number of chromosomes and homologous pairs of chromosomes (one
    • set from each parent)
    • Leads to an increase in variation in organisms
  222. Ozone in the upper atmosphere has been
    declining, exposing Earth’s surface to....
    higher levels of dangerous UV radiation
  223. How you can reduce your risk from toxic chemicals found in fresh fish?
    • Buy farmed fish that are lower on the food chain; for larger fish like salmon and sea bass, buy wild-raised. And limit consumption of fattier fish, like lake trout, or fish that are bottom dwellers, like wild catfish.
    • Fillet fish to remove as much fat as possible.
    • Bake or Brooil it b/c frying ittraps the toxins in the fish.
  224. Gene Therapy
    The treatment of a genetic disorder by the insertion of “normal” copies of a gene into the cells of a patient carrying “defective” copies of the gene.
  225. Visible light spectrum: know in order (from shortest to
    longest wavelength)
    • violet, indigo, blue, green,
    • yellow, orange, red
  226. Scientific Method
    • Observation
    • Hypothesis
    • Predictions
    • Testing
    • Controls
    • Conclusion
  227. AIDS
    Acquired Immune Difficiency Syndrome
  228. HIV
    human immunodeficiency virus
  229. -Host specifity and cell specificity of HIV
    • HIV will only infect humans and some of
    • the great apes
    • HIV only attacks certain types of white blood cells
    • -The white blood cells it attacks are the very ones that normally help the body to fight off viral infections and destroypre-cancerous cells in our body.
  230. general Formula for Aerobic Respiration
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
  231. Shorter wavelength =
    Higher Energy
  232. Human genome
    • Sequencing (finding the exact order of CGAT nucleotides) of human DNA accomplished
    • in 2000
    • Some chromosomes have very few genes
    • Most of the human genome is noncoding DNA
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