Types of referrals?
- taken into custody
Who are the people who make referrals?
Parents, neighbors, etc.
What are referrals?
notification to the courts that a juvenile needs the court’s attention
What is the holding of the McKeiver v. Pennsylvania case?
Juveniles are not entitled to a jury trial of their peers
What is the federal age of majority?
What is the traditional police view to “community needs”.
The public does not understand what they need
What are the obstacles that affect community policing efforts?
R.E.C.A.P. (rudeness, excessive power, corruption, authoritarianism and politics)
What is the “tripod approach” to community policing?
- Public Relations
- Community Participation
- Community Service
What are the goals of community policing?
- reduce crime and disorder
- promote citizen’s quality of life in community
- reduce fear of crime
- improve police-community relations
What is the history of juvenile treatment that we discussed?
- no rights; treated as cattle.
- No cross examinations or time to rebut evidence, etc.
- no right to jury trial,
- most cases were held informally,
- appeals were rarely taken,
- “Hands off Doctrine”
Usually viewed as a last resort for judges
Boys Home, Foster care, boys camps, etc.
Custodial Disposition (2 types)
- Nonsecure custody/confinement
- Secure custody/confinement
- Probation options:
- Community service
- Anger Management
- verbal warning
- slap on the wrist
What are the three juvenile dispositions?
In Re Gault:
- 1st US S.C. case that required standards to Juvenile Court judge’s decision making; established rights to:
- against self incrimination
- face and confront accuser
- specific notices of charges
In Re Winship:
- establish juvenile right to:
- criminal court standard of “beyond a reasonable doubt” when faced with possible loss of freedom as a penalty
a crime because not of proper age; would not be crimes for adults
violation of a state or local law/ordinance
any child who has violated a juvenile youth
What is the primary purpose for juvenile waivers?
For a harsher punishment
contest the automatic waivers; defense gets the burden of proof
concurrent jurisdiction (Juvenile and Criminal Court); prosecutor’s discretion
automatic waiver; age limit and offense type are set
Oldest and most popular where the judge makes the decision to waive the case (Discretionary)
Name the three primary juvenile waivers?
What are the elements of routine activity theory?
- Suitable Target
- Capable of Competent Guardianship
Dis/Advantages of Vehicle Patrol
- constant contact with HQ
- respond quicker
- cover more area
- less accessible to the public
Dis/Advantages of Bike Patrol:
- quicker than foot
- visible yet stealthy
- can go in tighter stops that cars
- good for public relations
- have to be specifically trained
- weather can suck
Dis/Advantages of Foot Patrol:
- increase citizen-officer relationship
- constant schedule and routines
- create community awareness
What is the key to problem-oriented policing?
- use of data to analyze problems
- why the problem is occurring
- where the problem is occurring
What are the goals to CPTED?
- Taget hardening
- Territorial Reinforcement
- Promotion of public safety
What does CPTED stand for?
What are the typical status offenses
- -Curfew violation
What is the SARA model?
- S - scanning
- A - analyzing
- R - response
- A - assessment