1. Types of referrals?
    • arrested
    • taken into custody
  2. Who are the people who make referrals?
    Parents, neighbors, etc.
  3. What are referrals?
    notification to the courts that a juvenile needs the court’s attention
  4. What is the holding of the McKeiver v. Pennsylvania case?
    Juveniles are not entitled to a jury trial of their peers
  5. What is the federal age of majority?
  6. What is the traditional police view to “community needs”.
    The public does not understand what they need
  7. What are the obstacles that affect community policing efforts?
    R.E.C.A.P. (rudeness, excessive power, corruption, authoritarianism and politics)
  8. What is the “tripod approach” to community policing?
    • Public Relations
    • Community Participation
    • Community Service
  9. What are the goals of community policing?
    • reduce crime and disorder
    • promote citizen’s quality of life in community
    • reduce fear of crime
    • improve police-community relations
  10. What is the history of juvenile treatment that we discussed?
    • no rights; treated as cattle.
    • No cross examinations or time to rebut evidence, etc.
    • no right to jury trial,
    • most cases were held informally,
    • appeals were rarely taken,
    • “Hands off Doctrine”
  11. Secure Custody/Confinement:
    Usually viewed as a last resort for judges
  12. Nonsecure custody/Confinement
    Boys Home, Foster care, boys camps, etc.
  13. Custodial Disposition (2 types)
    • Nonsecure custody/confinement
    • Secure custody/confinement
  14. Custodial Disposition:
    • Probation options:
    • Community service
    • Anger Management
    • AA
    • Etc.
  15. Nominal Disposition
    • verbal warning
    • slap on the wrist
  16. What are the three juvenile dispositions?
    • Nominal
    • Custodial
    • Conditional
  17. In Re Gault:
    • 1st US S.C. case that required standards to Juvenile Court judge’s decision making; established rights to:
    • attorney
    • against self incrimination
    • face and confront accuser
    • specific notices of charges
  18. In Re Winship:
    • establish juvenile right to:
    • criminal court standard of “beyond a reasonable doubt” when faced with possible loss of freedom as a penalty
  19. Status Offender
    a crime because not of proper age; would not be crimes for adults
  20. Juvenile Delinquent
    violation of a state or local law/ordinance
  21. Juvenile Offender
    any child who has violated a juvenile youth
  22. What is the primary purpose for juvenile waivers?
    For a harsher punishment
  23. Reverse Waivers
    contest the automatic waivers; defense gets the burden of proof
  24. Prosecutorial Waivers
    concurrent jurisdiction (Juvenile and Criminal Court); prosecutor’s discretion
  25. Legislative Waivers
    automatic waiver; age limit and offense type are set
  26. Judicial Waivers
    Oldest and most popular where the judge makes the decision to waive the case (Discretionary)
  27. Name the three primary juvenile waivers?
    • Judicial
    • Legislative
    • Prosecutorial
  28. What are the elements of routine activity theory?
    • Offender
    • Suitable Target
    • Capable of Competent Guardianship
  29. Dis/Advantages of Vehicle Patrol
    • constant contact with HQ
    • respond quicker
    • cover more area
    • less accessible to the public
    • constant
    • contact with HQ, respond quicker, cover more area but less accessible to the
    • public
  30. Dis/Advantages of Bike Patrol:
    • quicker than foot
    • visible yet stealthy
    • can go in tighter stops that cars
    • good for public relations
    • have to be specifically trained
    • weather can suck
  31. Dis/Advantages of Foot Patrol:
    • increase citizen-officer relationship
    • constant schedule and routines
    • create community awareness
  32. What is the key to problem-oriented policing?
    • use of data to analyze problems
    • why the problem is occurring
    • where the problem is occurring
  33. What are the goals to CPTED?
    • Taget hardening
    • Territorial Reinforcement
    • Promotion of public safety
  34. What does CPTED stand for?
    • Criminal
    • Prevention
    • Through
    • Enviromental
    • Design
  35. What are the typical status offenses
    • -Truancy
    • -Runaway
    • -Curfew violation
  36. What is the SARA model?
    • S - scanning
    • A - analyzing
    • R - response
    • A - assessment
Card Set
Notes for JUS 200 (Police in America) final at NKU (Fall 2010)