History unit 1

  1. Christopher Colombus
    • He tried for many years to persuade kings and queens to give him money for food and ships so he could find a new route to China.
    • Columbus persuaded King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to give him money.
    • In return he promised to give them new lands, spices, money and new people to become Christian.
    • Columbus had three ships. The Niña, the Pinta and the Santa Maria.
    • On 12th October 1492 the Pinta first spotted what Columbus called San Salvador. It is now known as the Bahamas. Then they arrived to Cuba.
    • Then he reached Hispaniola and found the land that was later known as America.
    • People now a days believe he accidentally lead to the biggest genocide in history.
  2. Hernan Cortez
    • "conquer or die"
    • Spanish explorer known for his march across Mexico and his conquer of the Aztec Empire in Mexico.
    • Went to Santo Domingo in 1504 and took part in the conquest of Cuba in 1511.
    • Then learned about the Aztecs and was ready to conquer them. He allied with a clan that was against the Aztecs. The ruler of the Aztecs was Montezuma. Aztecs believes Hernan was the god from a leyend in their tribe, Malinche helped Cortez. Small pox and other disease destroyed the Aztec Empire.
  3. Montezuma:
    • Ruler of the Aztec Empire during the Spanish conquest. He believed in the legend that Quetzalcoalt was coming back to the thrown.
    • When Hernan came he believed he was the god and wanted to give the power to him but most Aztecs did not want him there.
    • He was contaged by small pox and died.
  4. Hernando de soto:
    • Was a spanish explorer who sailed to the Atlantic Oceanand was fist to explore FLorida and Souneast US.
    • He sided Pedro de Avila against Cordoba. And sidded Pizarro against Atahualpa. He gained right to conquer Florida and became governor of Cuba. He tried to contact the Cherokees, Checks, Apparlchics. He died during theexplorations and was burried near the Mississippi.
    • He was known for bringing pigs that had diseases and wiped a great amount of the native american population.
  5. Francisco Pizarro
    • Was a spanish conquistador, conquerer of the Inca Empire and founder of the city of lima. He took Atahualpa and made a trick on himby telling himhe wante to make a dinner in his honor but took him captive.
    • Then he invaded Cuzco and brought down the Incan Empire.
  6. Bartolome de las casas
    • Was a spanish colonist, a prest. He was called the fathe of anti-imperialism. He fought for the right of the native americans.
    • He made many plans to take care of the narives but did none seemed to work. Eventually he was partly responsible of destroying the Encomienda System but because he protected the natives he gave the idea of Afican american slavery.
  7. Treaty of Tordesillas
    • This is the treaty agreed in Tordesillas on june 7, 1494. between King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, and King Juan II (King of Portugal).
    • Before this treaty Spain had claimed all the land found by colombus theirs. Juan II claimed their land and there were negotiations. First, spain was willing to establish an imaginary land running north and south through the mid-atlantic, 100 leages from Cape Verde islands. Spain possesed territory west fom the line and portugal right from theline. Portugal was obviously unsatisfied because they barely received any land. Then the treaty was renegotiated and reestablished the land 370 leagues from Cape Verde.The Portugues agreed having no experience on exploring becuase they did not realize they only received a small portion of brazil.
  8. Spanish Armada
    • Sapnish army that had the task to overthrow protestant england lead of queen Isabella.
    • When Francis Drake traveled around the world it was a disaster for the spanish and vicory for Great Britain.
  9. Columbian Exchange Black Legend
    Also called the triangular trade. Europe would go to Africa and exchange guns for slves. African leaders welcomed this technology in trade for their people. Europe then traded the slaves to the Americas fro fruits,coffee, technology. The Americas needed the African slaves since the native Americans were dying out. The Americas not only received positive things but also many types of diseases. Africa had a loss of population.
  10. Mestizos
    a mix of spanish and native americans. The mixture of races was one of the consequences of the columbian exchange.
  11. Noche Triste:
    was anepisode in the Spanish conquest of mexico where Hernan cortez expedition was nearly anniquilated in the Aztec capitaland barely succeding in escaping the Aztecs. They were attacked at night but survived.
  12. Encomienda
    system where the natives worked for the spanish landlord whousually abused and overworked them.
  13. Mercantilism:
    a country's powerr is dependant on theirown wealth,size and strength of their army and navy.
  14. genocide:
    It is a very specific term, referring to violent crimes committed against groups with the intent to destroy the existence of the group.
  15. Sugar Revolution
    Nativeamericans would rebelandburn sugarplantations .
  16. Middle passage:
    • AfricanAmerican leaders would capture their own people to trade for guns and alcohol.
    • Rebellion was followed by punishment,
    • On the ships there was suicidal.
    • People woudl release their waste on top of someone else. People were crammed into one ship in order to make less voyages. They were naked. Some killed themselves.
    • Sick ones weree killed or drowned in the ocean.
    • They were baptized with anew name in the new world.
  17. Council of the indies:
    Supreme governing body of Spain's colonies in America. Composed of between 6-10 councelors appointed by the king, the council prepared and issued all the legislation governing the colonies in the King's name,approved allimportant acts.Lost importance in the 18th century.
  18. colonies:
    • Virginia: child of tobacco
    • Maryland: Catholic Haven
    • West Indies: Was station to mainland America
    • Georgia: no slaves/poor
    • Jamestown
    • Carolinas
  19. enclosure movement:
    • causedby the industrial revolution in england.
    • It was wealthy farmers bought land from poor farmes.Then,benfitted and improved crop production.
    • People moved to city in search of jobs in factories. Population growth caused people to migrate to where facories where built and caused child labor.
  20. Joint Stock Company
    • Money was raised by selling shares to investors and would become patners in ventures.
    • Virginia company was one of the earliest joins stock companies.
    • Share holders were responisbleof the company and in terms of rik exposure the share holders would only lose the amount they initially invested.
  21. Indentured Servants:
    contract inwhih poor people had a contract wih aninvestor in which the payment of the trip was 8 years of servitude.
  22. Nationstate
    a state or country that has defined borders and territory.
  23. Slave codes
    It justifid the horrible acts white men placed on blckmen. It waslegal to split families andkill black men if they did something wrong.
Card Set
History unit 1
Quarter 1