Bio Final Exam

  1. What is the basic purpose of a phase II clinical
    Test the drug's effectiveness
  2. Where inside of a cell is protein made?
  3. What is the link between cell differentiation and cancer?
    The more differentiated a tissue is, the lower the likelihood of metastatic cancer
  4. What causes the increase in risk for cancer when one smokes and drinks?
    Smoke causes DNA mutations

    Alcohol stimulates proliferation of damaged cells
  5. What do proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have in common?
    Regulate cell growth
  6. How do most cancers begin?
    From mutations
  7. What is angiogenesis and who discovered it?
    When the tumor induces blood vessels to grow towards it

    Judah Folkman discovered it
  8. What percentage of cancers is currently believed to have a dietary link?
  9. What is the greatest risk factor for cancer?
  10. What is the single most important reason for the increase in cancer incidence rates today?
    Increase in life expectancy
  11. Which two cancers account for the annual increase in childhood cancer rates?
    Leukemia and brain cancer
  12. What is the most successful cancer screening test in existence today?
    Pap smear test
  13. Why are cells that line the intestines, stomach, and hair cells affected by chemotherapy?
    Chemotherapy kills all rapidly dividing cells
  14. Which procedure reduces lymphedema in breast cancer patients?
    Sentinel lymph node procedure
  15. What is the probability of inheriting a defective cancer gene such as BRCA from a parent?
  16. What characterizes an AIDS diagnosis?
    CDR less than 200 or viral load greater than 55,000
  17. Standard HIV tests look for what in patient blood?
  18. Although sub-Saharan Africa accounts for only 12% of the world’s population, what percentage of AIDS deaths occurs there?
  19. Which country is a good example of a proper HIV prevention strategy?
    Thailand (& Uganda)
  20. What is the function of the viral protease in HIV?
    To cut up the DNA in order to create new virus cells
  21. Which two HPV strains are found in over 90% of all cervical cancer cases?
    16 & 18
  22. Cancer is an umbrella term that refers to over 100 diseases that share what characteristics?
    • Uncontrolled growth of cells
    • Ability to invade other tissues (metastasis)
  23. Which cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and which cancer has the lowest survival rate?
    • Lung cancer is the leading cause of deaths
    • Pancreatic has the lowest survival rate
  24. What are therapeutic vaccines?
    Prolong life
  25. How do HIV antiviral inhibitors work?
    Fusion inhibitor prevents cell entry

    • NRTI – inserts faulty base
    • NNRTI – physically blocks transcription process

    Integrase inhibitor prevents integration of virus DNA with host DNA

    Protease inhibitor prevents cutting of DNA strand
  26. What does the “window period” of HIV infection entail?
    • Time before seroconversion
    • Tests come out negative because no antibodies yet
  27. Injection drug use accounts for what percentage of HIV infections worldwide?
  28. What are the different types of lung cancers and their relative prevalence?
    • Non-small cell carcinoma (85%):
    • Adencarcinoma (40%)
    • Squamous cell (30%)
    • Large cell (15%)

    Small cell carcinoma (15%): most deadly, but more responsive to chemo and radiation
  29. What makes up a modified live vaccine?
    • Attenuated strains grown to be non-pathogenic
    • Stimulate natural immune response
    • Effective, but can negatively impact
  30. What are the different types of cancers based on tissue type in which they originated?
    • Carcinomas (85%): cancers of epithelial cells;
    • - squamous cells (line mouth, esophagus, airways)
    • - adeno cells (lining of glands; stomach, ovaries, kidneys, prostate)
    • - transitional cells (bladder and urinary system)
    • - basal cells (layer of the skin)

    Leukemias: blood cells

    Lymphomas: lymph nodes

    Sarcomas: connective tissues; bones, cartilage, muscle
  31. What is post exposure prophylaxis in HIV treatment?
    If exposed to high-risk behavior, can take anti-retrovirals
  32. What is DNA?
    Genetic info that codes for proteins
  33. What are the characteristics of the p53 gene?
    • Regulate apoptosis
    • Enforce checkpoints
    • Many cancers have this mutation
  34. Which cell types have the most telomerase?
    • Cancer cells
    • Fetal and embryonic cells
  35. What is the normal function of BRCA genes?
    DNA repair genes
  36. What are the normal functions of TS and PO genes?
    • Stop cell at checkpoints
    • Cause cell to grow
  37. What is currently driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Russia?
    Sex workers and injection drug use
  38. What are the characteristics of a benign tumor/can they be problematic?
    • Non-metastatic and can’t do angiogenesis
    • Problem in brain and other organs because pushes and causes pressure
    • Won’t spread but can cause death
  39. What are the characteristics of tissue differentiation?
    • Hypertrophy: increase in cell size; normal orientation
    • Hyperplasia: increase in cell number; normal orientation
    • Dysplasia: disorganized growth
    • Neoplasia: disorganized growth; net increase in number of diving cells
  40. Where are your cellular chromosomes located inside of a cell?
  41. How do mutations in tumor suppressor genes cause problems?
    Loss-of-function mutation (lost the break)
  42. What is carcinoma in situ and how is it different from metastatic cancer?
    Cancer hasn’t spread; not metastatic
  43. Why are blood and body fluids able to transmit HIV?
    Free viruses in them, or CD4 cells that contain viruses
  44. What is the mechanism of how obesity increases one’s risk for cancer?
    • Insulin is growth factor; it gets increased
    • Apoptosis decreases
    • Cell proliferation increases causing tumor development
  45. In what ways can HIV be passed from a mother to her child?
    • In utero (crossing placenta)
    • At birth
    • Breast milk
  46. Which type of skin cancer is responsible for the majority of fatalities and which type is the most common?
    • Melanoma is most deadly
    • Basal cell carcinoma is most common
  47. What were the major outcomes of the AIDS vaccine phase III trial in Thailand last year?
    • No difference in viral load between two groups
    • No statistical significance of survey after you remove those who did not take all 6 doses
  48. What is cancer’s most deadly weapon?
  49. How many people have died from AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic?
    25 million
Card Set
Bio Final Exam
Questions for my microbiology final exam.