Power that is dependent on fear, suppression of free will, and/or use of punishment or threat, for its existence.
A group of people who have a similar relationship to wealth, power, and prestige.
A type of society common in foraging groups and marked by egalitarian social structure and lack of specialization.
A type of society with an office of chief, most commonly hereditary; social ranking; and a redistributive economy.
Egalitarian Social Structure
A society in which individuals within the same category of age and gender have equal access to wealth, prestige, and power.
A society in which the individual's access to prestige and wealth is limited by the number of positions available. A society may be stratified by rank, such as a chiefdom.
Unseen powers that are not personified and may be manipulated to achieve good or evil.
A full-time supernatural practitioner who is part of a bureaucracy.
An impersonal supernatural force that flows in and out of people and objects.
Rites of Passage: Separation, Transition, Incorporation
Separation - the individual is removed or separated from her or his present group.
Transition - a change of some sort happening to the person.
Incorporation - when the ceremonies reintegrate the person into the society as a member of a new group.
"Old Man Coyote"
A trickster who lived among Native American cultures from the Pacific to the Great Plains. Known for seducing women or being deceptive so that he could win races.
Ghost Dance Religion
A revitalization movement that spread among Native American cultures of North America. It arose twice, in 1869, and in 1889 from the same tribal source, the Paiute near Walker Lake, Nevada.
The study of the music of a contemporary society within the context of that society.
The incorporation of knowledge, ideas, behaviors, and material creations from a different culture as a consequence of prolonged contact with that culture.
Early theoretical school that postulated that all cultures proceeded through a series of successive stages.
Theoretical school, established by Franz Boas, who hypothesized that each culture had its own particular history that could be documented through repeated ethnographies
One who believes that he or she has a moral obligation to take the side of indigenous populations whenever such peoples' rights to self-determination are violated.
Influence and authority of one nation over another, often associated with exploitation of natural and human resources.
The rapid spread of economic, social, and cultural systems across continents.
A type of anthropology that deals with urbanization, poverty, and neoliberalism.
A type of anthropology that focuses on the application of anthropological methods and approaches to the solution of problems, as distinct from academic anthropology.
Mexican Folk Medicine Remedies
The use of chamomile for gas, anxiety, as an eyewash and for nausea. Mullein is used as an expectorant, for asthma, coughs and tuberculosis. Passion flower is used for hypertension and anxiety, and oregano is used for intestinal worms, to relieve phlegm and for menstruation problems.
Power and Authority
Power - The ability to influence or cause people or groups to do certain things that they would not do otherwise.
Authority - The exercise of legitimate power; the right to rule invested by members of the community in its leaders.
A ranked group with membership determined at birth.
A society marked by egalitarian social structure, based on horticultural and pastoral economies, and integrated by various types of kinship organizations and sodalities.
Societies characterized by a political structure with authority that is legally constituted.
Studies of the adaptations made by rural peoples as they move to cities.
The techniques used to manipulate supernatural forces and beings.
Invisible beings that exhibit form, personality, attitudes, and powers.
A part-time practitioner of the supernatural who has special powers to mediate between the supernatural world and the community.
Ritual of Intensification
Rituals that reinforce group solidarity, cultural values, and group social and political status relationships.
Beings that pay tricks or practical jokes on people.
Yanomamo Shamans' Methods
Sucking a foreign object out of an afflicted person's body, often a small piece of bone or stone or even an internal organ from a small animal that has been kept hidden from the patient. Also the shaman may be pulling a contaminating spirit from a patient into his or her own body.
Upper Paleolithic Cave Art
A range of styles represented; Realism and naturalism are dominant, but abstraction, exaggeration, fantasy, portraiture, caricature, and elaborate decoration are found.
New Zealand Maori Facial Tattoos
Known as moko, communicates extensive personal information, including clan membership, social rank, and personal history.
Ethnographic study of a situation to document effects of change.
Early theoretical school that explained the origin and spread of artifacts and ideas through borrowing between cultures.
The ideological domination by one cultural group over another through institutions, bureaucracy, education, and sometimes force.
Influence and dominance of one nation over another for the purpose of exploiting raw resources.