CH11:Intelligence & Testing

  1. validity
    • property exhibited by a test that measures what it purports to measure
    • accuracy
    • types:face validity, content validity, criterion validity, concurrent validity, predictive validity, construct validity
  2. face validity
    • measures whether a test looks like it tests what it is suppose to test
    • on the surface
  3. content validity
    • property by a test in which each item is representative of the larger body of knowledge about the subject that the test covers
    • cross-section examination
    • uses item analysis
  4. item analysis
    process of examining each question on a test to see how it is related to the objectives being tested
  5. criterion validity
    • property of a test that accurately measures performance of a test taker agains learning goal
    • have to meet certain level
  6. concurrent validity
    meeasures how much a characterstic has now
  7. predictive validity
    a measure of future performance
  8. construct validity
    looks for relationships in testing
  9. measure validity
    • correlation between test scores & some other relevant measure
    • relationship between two scores
  10. reliability
    • property of a test that yields the same results over time
    • consistency
    • types: test-retest reliability, split-half reliability
  11. test-retest reliability
    property of a test on which people get about the same scores when they take the test more than once
  12. split-half reliability
    measure of reliability in which a test is split into two parts and and individual's scored on both halves are compared
  13. measure reliability
    look at correlation between two scores on same test
  14. norms
    standards used to compare scores of test takers
  15. percentile score
    indicates the percentage of people who achieved the same as or less than a particular score
  16. normal range
    scores falling near the middle of a normal distribution
  17. objective tests
    tests that can be scored easily by machine, such as multiple-shoice and selected-response tests
  18. subjective/projective tests
    • tests when idividuals are given an ambiguous figure or an open-ended situation and asked to describe what they see or finish a story
    • no right answer
    • difficult to grade
    • problem:inter-rater reliability
  19. inter-rater reliability
    a measure of how similarly two differect test scores would score a test
  20. aptitude tests
    • assess person's capacity to learn, predict future performance
    • measures ability and potential
  21. achievement tests
    assesses what a person has already learned or accomplished
  22. speed tests
    large number of relatively easy items in limited test period
  23. power tests
    • items varying difficulty with adequate test period
    • items of increasing difficulty
  24. group test
    • test many people at one time
    • test taker workds alone
    • cheaper
    • more objective
  25. Binet-Simon Test
    • Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon
    • calculated child's mental age
    • compared it to chronological age
    • identifies which children needed attention in school
  26. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test/Scale
    • Lewis Terman
    • individual IQ test with IQ calculated using ratio formula: MA/CA x 100
  27. intelligent quotient (IQ)
    • a numerical score on an intelligence test
    • MA/CA x 100
    • problems: older people looked stupid on tests
  28. mental age
    the average age at which normal (average) individuals achieve a particular score
  29. chronological age
    the number of years since the individual's birth
  30. Wechsler Intelligence Test/Scale
    • David Wechsler
    • three age individual IQ tests:
    • 1. WPPSI (wechsler preschool & primary scale of intelligence)
    • 2. WISC (wechsler intelligence scale for children)
    • 3. WAIS (wechsler adult intelligence scale)
  31. mental retardation
    IQ under 70
  32. giftedness
    IQ over 30
  33. psychometricians
    • focus on methods for acquiring & analyzing psychological data
    • measure mental traits, abilities, & processes
    • mental testing
  34. g factor
    • Charles Spearman
    • a general ability as the main factor underlying all intelligent mental activity
  35. crystallized intelligence
    • Raymond Catell
    • the knowledge a person has acquired & the ability to access that knowledge
    • store & retrieve infor
    • measured by tests of vocab, math, & general info
  36. fluid intelligence
    • Raymond Catell
    • the ability to see complex relationships & solve problems
    • measured by tests of block design & spatial visualization
  37. triarchic theory of intelligence
    • Robert Sternberg
    • combines three main forms of intelligence:
    • practical intelligence
    • analytical intelligence
    • creative intelligence
  38. practical (contextual) intelligence
    • Robert Sternberg
    • ability to cope with the environment
    • "street smarts"
  39. analytical (componential) intelligence
    • Robert Sternberg
    • ability measure by most IQ tests
    • includes abilit to analyze problems & find correct answers
  40. creative (experiential) intelligence
    • form of intelligence that helps people see new relationships among conceptes
    • involves insight & creativity
  41. multiple intelligences
    • Howard Gardner
    • proposes that there are seven (or more) forms of intelligence
    • linguistic, logical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal,nature
  42. linguistic
    vocab & reading comprehension
  43. logical
  44. spatial
  45. bodily-kinesthetic
  46. interpersonal
    understand others
  47. intrapersonal
    understand self
  48. nature
    understands the natural environment
  49. savant syndrome
    found in people with a remarkable talend event hough they are mentally slow in other areas
  50. emotional intelligence (EQ)
    • Daniel Goleman
    • notions of intrapersonal or interpersonal intelligence
    • ability to retrain yourself & work with others
  51. self-fulfilling prophecy
    • Rosenthal & Jacobsen
    • observations or behaviors that result primarily from expectations
  52. bias-questions on tests
    • do not bode well for all people from different nationalities
    • goal: culture-fair tests
  53. culture-relevant tests
    test skills & knowledge related to cultural experiences of the test takers
  54. nature
    • highest correlation between identical twins
    • adopted children can resemble biological parents
  55. nuture
    IQ scores can improve if child is place in stimulating environment
  56. flynn effect
    • steady increase in performance on IQ tests over the last 80 years
    • possibly resluting from better nutrition, educational opportunities & health care
  57. culture-familial retardation
    retardation attributed to sociocultural deprivation (lower-class families)
  58. Lews Terman's study on intelligence
    • strong correlation between IQ & academic achievement
    • gifted people tend to be happier & better overall health
  59. eugenics
    a philosphy & political movement that encouraged biologically superior people to interbreed & sought to discourage biologically inferior people from having offspring
  60. Arthur Jensen
    • intelligence is 80% hereditary
    • whites did better on IQ tests than african-americans
  61. Hernstein & Murray (The Bell Curve)
    • claimed racial differences in IQ have strong genetic base
    • other factors could have cause low IQ scores
  62. within-group differences
    • range of scored for variables being measured for a group or individuals
    • top compared to bottom
  63. between-group differences
    usually the difference between means of two groups of individuals for a comment variable
  64. Stereotype Threat
    • Claude Steele
    • anxiety influences achievement of members of a group concerned that performance on a test will confirm negative stereotype
  65. heritability
    • the amount trait variation within a group, raised under the same onditions, that can be attributed to genetic differences
    • tells us nothing about between-group differences
  66. standardization
    • two-part test development procedure
    • first establishes test norms from the test results of the large representative
    • then assures that the test is both administered & scored uniformly for all test takers
  67. performance tests
    test taker knows how to respond to questions & tries to succeed
  68. factor analysis
    a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of items by determining which variables have high degree of correlation
Card Set
CH11:Intelligence & Testing
CH11: Intelligence & Testing