Class 17: Cancer

  1. 4 general types of cancer
    • Carcinomas: Skin, lining of organs (most common)
    • Sarcomas: Bone, muscle, cartilage
    • Leukemias: Blood, blood-forming cells
    • Lymphomas: Lymphatic system
  2. Carcinogenesis
    • Alteration in DNA=>Genetic control of cell function
    • Weakened immune system=>Fails to detect and repair or destroy cancerous cells
    • Tumor promotion factors=>E.G., some tumors have receptors for hormones such as estrogen
  3. Drop in cancer rate is not due to improved treatment. What is it due to?
    High incidence does not always mean "big killer." Why?
    • Due to lifestyle changes.
    • Breast cancer & prostate cancer have high incidence & high survival.
  4. Behavior risk factors
    • Smoking
    • -Risk of lung cancer 9 times higher in smokers
    • -Strongest link between any behavior and a major cause of death
    • -Smoking/living with a smoker=>breast cancer
    • -Smoking may multiply other risks
    • -Risk of smoking is under-estimated by smokers
    • -Smoking any tobacco product is never safe

    • Alcohol
    • -Not as strong a risk as smoking, poor diet
    • -Related to several cancers, e.g., pancreas, liver, breast, tongue, tonsils, esophagus
    • -Multiplies risk of smoking

    • Sedentary life style
    • Ultraviolet radiation (esp. if fair-skinned)
    • Sexually transmitted viruses
    • -HIV/AIDS
    • -Human papillomavirus=>cervical cancer
  5. Other cancer risk factors
    • Environmental carcinogens
    • -Radon gas
    • -Radiation
    • -Asbestos
    • -Industrial chemicals

    Social/demographics: age, race/ethnicity, SES

    • Biomedical factors
    • -Viruses
    • -Not having children, not breastfeeding
    • -Genetic inheritance
  6. What are possible dietary carcinogens?
    • -Spoiled food
    • -Fat/cholesterol
    • -Chemical additives
    • -Frying/barbecue
  7. What are possible Dietary Protectors?
    • -Vitamins, e.g., E, C, A/beta-carotene
    • -Lycopene, polyphenols, flavinoids, anti-oxidants, selenium
    • -Fiber
    • -Volume of fluid intake
  8. Compare breast & prostate cancer
    • Breast
    • -Most common form on cancer in women but not the most deadly
    • -Often progresses rapidly
    • -Can be promoted by estrogen
    • -surgery is indicated for survival

    • Prostate
    • -Most common form on cancer in men but not the most deadly
    • -Often progresses slowly
    • -Can be promoted by testosterone
    • -NOT clear whether surgery is indicated for survival
  9. Psychological stress
    • PAC/SAM Activity=>suppressed immunity
    • -Impaired ability to detect/destroy cancerous cells
    • -Greater susceptibility to cancer-producing viruses

    • PAC/SAM Activity=>enhanced immunity
    • -inflammation
  10. Type C Personality
    • Suppressed emotion, no fighting spirit, avoidance, depression
    • Evidence is weak, inconsistent
    • Perhaps influences (but doesn't initiate) course of cancer
  11. Those who want to have/project a desirable social image do these things...
    • -Initiation of cigarette smoking
    • -Initiation of alcohol consumption
    • -Exposing oneself to ultraviolet radiation
    • -Engaging in risky sexual practices
    • -Identity as key psychosocial issue in adolescence
    • -Reluctance to have HPV vaccine/digital prostate exam
Card Set
Class 17: Cancer
notes for finals