Psy 223 Test 2

  1. perception
    the process of categoration and interpretation of sensory input; recognizing what you see
  2. sensation
    sensory receptor neurons detect imformation signals from environment and transmit it to the brain
  3. Why do we care about the development of perception and sensory input?
    sensation, perception are central to human functioning
  4. Name two empiricists
    John Locke and William James
  5. Empiricits
    • -believed that infants must learn to perceive, they are not born with the ability
    • - knowledge only arises from experience
    • -extreme nuture view
    • - "blooming, buzzing confusion"
  6. Name two nativist
    Descartes and Kant
  7. Nativist
    • ability to perceive is innate (we are born with it)
    • extreme nature view
  8. Modern View
    • infants see some order in the universe at birth but perception is limited and comes about gradually
    • biological maturation and experience both contribute to the growth of percetual awareness
  9. Preference Method
    You present two visual stimuli simultaneously and measure the looking time. If infants looks longer at one than the other then it is assumed that the infant as a preference
  10. Robert Franz
    • -dealt with visual patterns
    • used a looking chamber and found that infants preferred to look at complex patterened stimuli than simple
  11. Mother vs. Stranger Face
    as early as 4 days, they show perference for mother's face
  12. Habituation
    A stimulus is repeated over and over again that it becomes so familar that infant stops responding to it then a 2nd stimuli is presented. If the infant reacts to it, it is perceived different than the first stimulus. If no reaction, it is not perceived as different
  13. ERPs
    • Event-related potentials
    • recording of brain waves during stimuli presentaion. If change is detected, patterns of the brain will change and then you can determine if two stimuli are discriminated
  14. Eye Tracking
    technology allows direct measure of looking time and direction of gaze as an infrared camera tracks pupil and corneal reflection so you dont have to rely on the imprecise measures of looking time and gaze
  15. Preference in Autisitc infants
    looked at more mouth than eyes than those without Autism
  16. __________ is least mature sense at birth
  17. Newborn,6 mo., and 12 mo. distance vision
    • newborn: 20/400
    • 6 mo: 20/60
    • 12 mo: 20/20
  18. Why is infant vision not good?
    infants lack the muscle control for focusing and have immature retina and visual brain pathways
  19. Color vision in infants
    • they DO discriminate between black and white and color
    • adult-like color by 2 mos.
  20. Auditory Perception
    recognize sound of mother's voice at less than 1 week and particulary responsive to human voice
  21. Cognition
    • mental processes by which knowledge is acquired, stored, and used to solve problems
    • includes things such as attention, learning,thinking,and remember
  22. Jean Piaget
    • prominent view in cognitive development
    • 4 major steps
    • invariant developmental sequences
    • organized in schema
  23. Constructivist view
    children aquire knowledge by acting on their environment and the level of understand depends on maturity of child's cognitive system
  24. Schema
    • mental constuct about an object or set of action
    • how knowledge is organized
  25. Behavioral schema
    • first intellectual stuctures to emerge (first 2 yrs)
    • organized patterns of behavior used to represent object formed by actively engaging with object
  26. Symbolic schema
    • emerges during 2nd year
    • represent experiences, objects symbolically without having to act on them
    • mental reprenstation or image of behavior formed and then retrieved
  27. operation schema
    • emerges after 7 years, adult-like
    • cognitive operations: mental activity used to reach logical, adult-like conclusions
  28. How do children gain knowledge?
    organize schema which increases complexity
  29. Whats the point of organizing schema and gain knowledge?
    • to adapt and adjust to demands of the environment
    • as a a child grows, they gain more complex and more differentiated schema
  30. How do schema get organized?
    either strengthened or changed (accommodation or assimilation
  31. assimilation
    • interpreting new experiences by incorporating into schema
    • strengthens existing schema and makes new experiences fit existing schema
  32. accomodation
    • changing
    • adapt and modify existing schema
    • must accoommodate old schema to new object
  33. equilibration
    back and forth process of seeking fit with exisiting schemas and new experiences to achieve balance btw current understanding of world and new experiences
  34. sequence of cognitive development
  35. Sensorimotor Period
    • mostly about behavioral schema
    • coordinating sensory inputs and motor capablities
    • has 6 substages
  36. 6 substages of the sensorimotor period
    • 1. Reflex Activity
    • 2. Primary Circular Reactions
    • 3. Secondary Circular Reactions
    • 4. Coorination of Secondary Circular Reactions
    • 5. Teritary Circular Reactions
    • 6. Symbolic Representation
  37. reflex activity
    • birth-1 1/2 month
    • excercising reflex schema
  38. primary circular reactions
    • -1 1/2 mo- 4 mo.
    • control over motor movements that are pleasurable; centered on baby's body
    • -ex: blowing bubbles
  39. secondary circular reactions
    • 4-8 mo.
    • actions produce interesting chance in environment
    • new relationship btw actions and environment
    • action produces feedback
  40. coordination of secondary circular reactions
    • 8-12 mo
    • coordination of 2 or more actions to achieve a simple objective
    • earliest form of problem solving and using a "plan"
  41. teritary circular reactions
    • 1-1 1/2 yrs
    • active experimentation with objects
    • invent new ways to solve problems
  42. symbolic representaion
    • 1 1/2-2 yrs
    • images and words come to stand for familar objects
    • ex: use a stick to bring something out of reach
    • new means of problem solving
  43. object permanence
    • realization that objects continue to exist even when they aren't visible
    • begins around 10-12 mo but full evident at 2 years
  44. infant temperament
    • characteristic mode of emotional and behavioral response to environmental events
    • mode of responding to the world that's consistent across situations and stable over time
    • core element of adult personality
  45. NY Longitudinal Study
    • Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess
    • defined 9 attributes of temperament
  46. 9 attributes of temperament
    • activity level
    • rhythmicity
    • approach-withdrawl
    • adaptablitity
    • threshold of responsiveness
    • intensity of reaction
    • quality of mood
    • distractibiltity
    • attention span/persistence
  47. 3 Broad Temperament Categories
    Easy, Difficult, Slow-to-Warm-Up
  48. Easy Temperament
    • 40%
    • even tempered
    • open to new experiences
    • adaptable
    • regular biological functions
  49. Difficult Temperament
    • 10%
    • very active and irritable
    • withdraw from new experiences
    • intense negative reactions
  50. Slow-to-Warm-Up temperament
    • 15%
    • low activity
    • moody
    • slow to adapt
    • react with passive resistance
    • not over-reactive
  51. attachement
    • core element of social and emotional development
    • -4 stages
  52. 4 Stages of Attachment
    • 1. Asocial
    • 2. Indiscriminate Attachments
    • 3. Specific
    • 4. Mulitple
  53. Asocial Attachment
    • 0-6 wks
    • not upset when left alone with stranger
    • reacts favorably to most stimuli but has a peferencs for Social stimuli
  54. Indiscriminate Attachments
    • 6 weeks-6 Months
    • prefer human company, but love attention from everyone
    • soothed more quickly by caregiver
  55. Specific Attachments
    • 7-9 mo.
    • protest only when separated from one person (mom)
    • begin to show separation anxiety and stranger wariness
    • primary caregiver becomes secure base
  56. mulitple attachments
    • -10+ mo
    • not attached to just 1 person
    • each attachment figure may serve difference puposes
  57. psychoanalytic theory for attachment
    attachment formed with the person who feeds you
  58. learning theory for attachment
    • stresses importance of feeding as a reinforcer in creating attachment
    • rewardingness leads to love
    • Harlow soon proved infants form attachments to adults who provides variety of rewards
  59. cognitive developmental theory of attachment
    • must have achieved some degree of object permanence to be able to discriminate familart ppl from strangers
    • depends part on cognitive development
  60. ethological theory of attachment
    • "born to love"
    • John Bowlby
    • biology
    • attachment is a reciprocal relationship
  61. Mary Ainsworth
    • studied pattens of attachment
    • used strange situation to measure attachment
  62. Secure Pattern of Attachment
    • 65%
    • infant actively explores while alone and visibly upset by separation but greets mom warmly with physical contact when she returns
    • infant is able to rely on availability and sensitivity of mom and maintain a good balance btw saftey and exploitation
    • caregiver: responsive to child, enjoy close contact, sensitive, encourage exploration
  63. Insecure Patterns of Attachment
    • 35%
    • anxious/avoidant
    • anxious/resistant
    • disorganized
  64. Anxious/Avoidant Insecure Pattern of Attachment
    • 15%
    • Infant: shows little distress when mom leaves, but avoids contact when she returns
    • caregiver: impatient, unresponsive,negative, or overzealous, talkative, give too much stimulation
  65. Anxious/Resistant Insecure Pattern of Attachment
    • 15%
    • infant: poverty of exploration, clingy with mom, distressed at separation, hesitant when mom returns, resists contack and resentful
    • caregiver: unresponsive or respond inconsistently-infants respond by increasing intensity and freq of attachment
  66. Disorganized Insecure Pattern of Attachment
    • 5%
    • infant: inconsistent behavior, dazed when mom returns, confused, moves closer then retreats, confused wheter or not to approach mom or not
    • caregiver: neglectful and abusive or depressed, confusing; infants are drawn to but also fear
  67. Internal Working Model
    • image of self as lovable caregiver
    • guides expectations in future close relationships
Card Set
Psy 223 Test 2
for psychology final