final exam study guide

  1. learning
    any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
  2. phobias
    irrational fears of specific objects or situations
  3. classical conditioning
    a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
  4. Unconditioned stimulus (US)
    a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
  5. unconditioned response (UR)
    an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
  6. extinction
    the gradual weakening and disappearance of conditioned response tendency
  7. spontaneous recovery
    the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure
  8. renewal effect
    if a response is extinguished ina different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place
  9. stimulus generalization
    when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
  10. stimulus discrimination
    occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
  11. higher-order conditioning
    in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
  12. operant conditioning
    a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
  13. law of effect
    if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the associated between the stimulus and the response is strengthened
  14. reinforcement
    occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response
  15. Operant chamber (skinner box)
    small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled
  16. emit
    to send forth
  17. reinforcement contingencies
    the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers
  18. cumulative recorder
    this creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a function of time.
  19. primary reinforcers
    events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
  20. secondary (or conditioned) reinforcers
    events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers
  21. shaping
    consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
  22. resistance to extinction
    occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer has been terminated
  23. discriminative stimuli
    cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences of a response
  24. schedule of reinforcement
    determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer
  25. continuous reinforcement
    occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced
  26. intermittent (or partial) reinforcement
    occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
  27. fixed ratio schedule
    the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of non reinforced responses
  28. variable ration schedule
    the reinforcer is given after a variable number of non-reinforced responses
  29. fixed interval schedule
    the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed
  30. variable interval schedule
    the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed
  31. positive reinforcement
    occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
  32. negative reinforcement
    occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
  33. escape learning
    an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
  34. avoidance learning
    an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring
  35. punishment
    this occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response
  36. preparedness
    involves species-specific predispositions to be conditioned in certain ways and not others
  37. latent learning
    learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs
  38. observational learning
    occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models.
  39. behavior modification
    a systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning
  40. cognition
    refers broadly to mental processes of thinking
  41. language
    this consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages
  42. phonemes
    the smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished perceptually
  43. morphemes
    the smallest units of meaning in a language
  44. semantics
    the area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations
  45. syntax
    a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences
  46. fast mapping
    the process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure
  47. overextension
    this occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is mean to
  48. under extension
    this occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to
  49. telegraphic speech
    this consists mainly of content words and other less critical words are omitted
  50. mean length utterance
    the average length of youngsters' spoken statements
  51. over regularizations
    these occur when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply
  52. bilingualism
    the acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabulary, and grammatical rules
  53. linguistic relativity
    the hypothesis that one's language determines the nature of one's thought
  54. chromosomes
    strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information
  55. zygote
    a single cell formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
  56. genes
    DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission
  57. homozygous condition
    two genes in a specific pair are the same
  58. heterozygous condition
    two genes in a specific pair are different
  59. dominant gene
    a gene that is expressed when paired genes are different
  60. recessive gene
    a gene that is masked when paired genes are different
  61. genotype
    a person's genetic makeup
  62. phenotype
    the ways in which a person's genotype is manifested in observable characteristics
  63. polygenic traits
    characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes
  64. family studies
    researches asses hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait
  65. twin studies
    researchers asses hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to trait
  66. identical twins
    emerge from one zygote that splits for unknown reasons
  67. fraternal twins
    result when two eggs are fertilized simultaneously by different sperm cells, forming two separate zygotes
  68. adoption studies
    assess heredity influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents
  69. genetic mapping
    the process of determining the location and chemical sequence of specific genes on specific chromosomes
  70. fitness
    the reproductive success of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the population
  71. development
    the sequence of age-related changed that occur as a person progresses from conception to death
  72. prenatal period
    extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy
  73. germinal stage
    the first phase of prenatal development, the first 2 weeks after conception
  74. placenta
    a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out the mother
  75. embryonic stage
    the second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 weeks to the end of the 2nd month
  76. fetal stage
    the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months through birth
  77. the age of viability
    the age at which a baby can survive in the even of a premature birth
  78. fetal alcohol syndrome
    a collection of congenital problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
  79. motor development
    refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities
  80. the cephalocaudal trend
    the head-to-foot direction of motor development
  81. the proximodistal trend
    the center-outward direction of motor development
  82. maturation
    development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint
  83. developmental norms
    typical age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities
  84. temperament
    characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
  85. longitudinal design
    observing one group of participants repeatedly over time
  86. cohort effects
    when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods
  87. attachments
    the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
  88. separation anxiety
    emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment
  89. stage
    a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established
  90. cognitive development
    refers to transitions in youngsters' patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving
  91. object permanence
    when a child recognizes that objects out of view continue to exist
  92. conservation
    the term for awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance
  93. centration
    the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects
  94. irreversibility
    inability to envision reversing an action
  95. egocentrism
    limited ability to share another person's viewpoint
  96. zone of proximal development
    the gap between what a learner can accomplish alone and what he or she can achieve with guidance from ore skilled partners
  97. fluid intelligence
    basic reasoning abilities, memory capacity, and speed of information processing
  98. crystalized intelligence
    the ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving
  99. socialization
    acquisition of the norms and behaviors expected of people in a particular society
  100. medical model
    proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
  101. etiology
    apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
  102. epidemiology
    study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
  103. prevalence
    percentage of a population that exhibit a disorder during a specified time period
  104. anxiety disorders
    a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
  105. generalized anxiety disorder
    marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
  106. phobic disorder
    marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object of situation that presents no realistic danger
  107. panic disorder
    recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly
  108. agoraphobia
    a fear of going out to public places
  109. somatoform disorders
    physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors
  110. somatization disorder
    a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin
  111. conversion disorder
    a significant loss of physical function usually in a single organ system
  112. dissociate disorders
    a class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity
  113. dissociative amnesia
    a sudden memory loss for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting
  114. dissociative fugue
    people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity
  115. dissociative identity disorder
    coexistance of one person of two or more largely complete and usually different personalities
  116. mood disorders
    a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual,social and thought processes
  117. major depressive disorder
    people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair
  118. dysthymic disorder
    chronic depression
  119. bipolar disorder
    characterized by the experience of one or more manic episodes as well as periods of depression
  120. cyclothymic disorder
    when someone exhibit chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance
  121. schizophrenic disorders
    a class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and deterioration of adaptive behavior
  122. delusions
    false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality
  123. paranoid schizophrenia
    dominated by delusions of persecution
  124. catatonic schizophrenia
    marked by striking motor disturbances
  125. disorganized schizophrenia
    severe deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen
  126. undifferentiated schizophrenia
    idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms
  127. expressed emotion
    the degree to which a relative of a patient displays highly critical or emotionally over-involved attitudes towards the patient
  128. personality disorders
    a class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning
  129. insight therapies
    verbal interactions intended to enhance client's self-knowledge and thus promote healthy changes in personality and behavior
  130. psychoanalysis
    an insight therapy that emphasize the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference
  131. free-association
    clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible
  132. dream analysis
    the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client's dreams
  133. interpretation
    the therapist's attempts to explain the inner significance of the client's thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviors
  134. transference
    this occurs when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives
  135. systematic desensitization
    a behavior therapy used to reduce phobic clients' anxiety responses through counterconditioning
  136. aversion therapy
    behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response
  137. cognitive therapy
    specific strategies to crrect habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders
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final exam study guide