1. Erikson's Tasks of Adulthood
    • Establishing a prodcutive work life that permits time to relate to partners and families
    • Choosing and committing to a loving partner
    • Having and rearing children
  2. 5 Markers of Adulthood
    • Living independently of parents
    • Completing education
    • Stabl job
    • Marriage
    • Childbearing
  3. Emerging Adulthood
    • Continued identity exploration
    • Instability
    • Feeling caught between adolescence and adulthood
    • Great self-focus
    • Adulthood optimism about future
  4. Parents Role in Supporting Growth
    • Financial assistance
    • Emotional support
    • Instrumental support
    • Informational support
  5. How can you stay close when children leave home?
    • New communication methods utilized (technology use)
    • Communication patterns mimic those with friends
    • Often children initiate communicatino interactions
    • Parents are often more cautious in giving negative feedback or criticism
    • Siblings may experience loss as the person is no longer there daily
  6. Empty Nest
    • Refers to the sad, empty feelings many parents have as children leave home
    • Authority decreases
    • Many long nostalgic days when everyone was together
    • Some see these years as a time of possibility for themselves
  7. What do grandchildren give to grandparents?
    • Sense of purpose
    • Pass on values
    • Chance to redo or undo past mistakes
    • Can bridge relationship with their children
  8. What is recommended for effective grand-parenting?
    • Provide support to you children, not advice
    • Learn to wait your turn for time with grandkids
    • Have close relationships by modern means of communication
  9. What are some sources of stress for parenting one's own parents?
    • Possible depression and isolation
    • Conflict with non-care giving siblings
    • Decisions about leaving work to meet parent's needs
    • Role-reversial issues
  10. What are some work policies that benefit working parents?
    • Pay the costs of further education
    • Offer advancements to practice new skills attained
    • Train on interpersonal and problem-solving skills that can personal life
  11. Parents who felt positive effects from work to home were those:
    • Who were married
    • Who had jobs that demanded more days per week
    • Who experienced less stress and autonomy at work
    • Who had supportive supervisors and coworkers
    • Who had more parental support from family and friends
    • Felt they were raising their children as they wanted
  12. Parents most likely to experience negatvie spillover to home were:
    • Put higher priority on work than family
    • Were more likely to be managers with relataively large responsibilities
    • Had demanding jobs that were difficult to complete in time
    • Had jobs that were too stimulating or not stimulating enough
    • Had less parenting support
  13. Characterisitcs of Working Parents:
    • Maintain higher levels of involvement with children by increasing work load: mothers average 71 hrs a week, fathers 64 hrs, unemployed mothers 54 hrs a week
    • Interact more intensely with them
  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies
    • I prioritize and do the things that are most necessary
    • I plan how I'm going to use my time and energy
    • I take on tasks if no one else is capable or available
    • I limit my volunteer work
  15. Delegating Home Responsibilities
    • Perferences are respected in negotiating rules
    • Problem-solving approach
    • Household chores can be divided into two categories:
    • -Self chores (making bed, taking plate to sink)
    • -Family care (setting table, taking out garbage)
  16. Who provides the most non-maternal care?
    • Relative care (50%)
    • Non-relative family day care (34%)
    • Non-relative center day care (22%)
    • After school program
    • Self-care (latch key children)
    • In-home care by sitter (3%)
  17. Two Aspects of Quality in Care:
    • Nurturing, positive, responsivesness
    • Safe, healthy, and developmentally stimulating
  18. What percent of adoptions are adults related to the children?
    About half
  19. At what ages do children begin to wonder why they were adopted?
    Between 7 to 11
  20. What do Brodzinsky and Pinderhuges caution about adoption?
    They caution that focusing on the problems of adopted children obscures the real benefits of adoption for children
  21. What family communicatoin pattern has the largest amount of adoptive followers?
    Laissez-faire: Nobody in the family spoke or listened or tried to influence each other so there were neither conversation nor pressure to agree to family standards (41%)
  22. What percent of divorced men and women remarry?
    • 65% women
    • 75% men
  23. Complex Family
    Families that consist of many individual who do not live within the basic unit of parents and children but who play an important role as parent figures in children's lives and must be incorporated as intimate family members
  24. What percent of teens actually plan for a pregnancy?
    About 19%
  25. Teen Fathers:
    • Usually come from low-income families in which parents often have problems with antisocial behavior
    • Their parens use ineffective disciplinary techniques and do not montior the boys well
    • In early adolescence, these boys begin to engage in deviant, rule breaking activities
    • Have little acadmeic success
    • Less involved in their child's life
  26. What affect does church have on teen mothers?
    • Higher self-esteem
    • More positive and less harsh punishments
    • Greater education and occupational success
    • Children had fewwer behavior problems
    • Churches may have provided social supports such as job opportunities and child care that enabled mothers to work
  27. What percent of preemies have insecure attachments to teen mothers at one year of age?
  28. What are some protective facotrs for children whose parents are divorcing?
    • Qualities of the child
    • Supportive aspects of the family system
    • External social supports
    • child's age, sex, and intelligence
    • Child's termperament
    • Reduced conflict between the parents
    • Authoritative parenting
    • Structure and organization in daily life
    • Siblings and grandparents
    • School
  29. Children's Behaviors During Parent's Divorce
    • Children's behavioral reactions to the divorce vary, depending on the personal and family characteristics- the level of conflict; the child's age, gender, and temperament; parent's emotional reactions; the amount of time with each parent
    • Sad
    • Anxious
    • Fear
    • Aggressive, non compliant behaviors
    • Irritable, reactive termperaments feel anxiety and anger
    • May resistn mother's authority
    • Depression
    • Insecure behaviors
  30. How many children report being bullied?
    Over 70%
  31. What percent of children have serious illnesses?
    10% of children have serious or chronic illnesses
  32. Grief
    A normal reaction to loss. It is a physical reaction
  33. Bereavement
    To rob or plunder. It is the separation or loss through death
  34. Mourn
    To express grief. It is the culturally prescribed behaviors.
  35. What are the Dougy Centers Guiding principles for grief?
    • Grief is natural and expected response
    • Each carries with him or hear and innate capacity to heal
    • Duration and intensity of grief is unique for each
    • Caring and acceptance are helpful to a person resolving grief
  36. Bowlby's Separation Stages
    • Protest: Overt respsonse, reject alternative figures, may cling to another individual
    • Despair: Increasing hopelessness, quiet, and withdrawn, crying only a bit
    • Detachment: Appear to be making recovery, active, interested in surrounding, indifference with parents. A coping mechanism to cope with the pain of separation.
  37. Strategies for Parental Coping
    • Form collaborative partnerships with everyone
    • Balance needs of all family members
    • Focus on the positive aspects of the situation
    • Emphasize commitment of all family members and helping everyone
    • Maintain ties to other family and friends
    • Be flexible with family roles and lt other take on new roles
    • Separating the illness from the child
  38. Complicated Grief
    • Results when life issues are unexpressed and become locked in frozen blocks of time.
    • -Contributing Factors
    • --Sudden death
    • --Stigma of death
    • --Traumatic Death
    • --Multiple losses
    • --Past relationship to the deceased
  39. Common Activities in Normal Grief in Children
    • Retelling the story
    • Feeling that the deceased person is still with them
    • Feeling rejected by old friends and making new ones with similar experiences
    • Calling home during the day
    • Difficulty concentrating at school
  40. 6 Types of Childhood Loss
    • Loss of Relationship
    • Loss of External Objects
    • Loss in Environment
    • Loss of Self
    • Loss of Skill or Ability
    • Loss of Habits
  41. 4 Main Types of Abuse
    • Physical
    • Sexual
    • Neglect
    • Emotional
  42. Children's Neurobiological Responses to Maltreatment
    • The fear creates hormones that trigger adrenal glands to produce cortisol
    • High cortisol helps body respond by triggering brain to shut down
    • Children may become continuously low, less responsive
    • May damage the immue system and change memory fuctions of the brain
    • Hyper arousal shows decline in intellecutal fucntioning, attention, and memory
    • Poor peer relations
    • Posttraumatic stress disorder
    • Disorganized attachment to parent
    • Poor emotional regulation and feelings of self-blame
  43. Interventions for Abuse
    • Separate child from abuser
    • Train parents to cope and parent child appropriately
    • Therpay to help children manage feelings
    • Activities that promote feelings of self-worth, control, and social connections
    • Interrupting cycle of abuse
  44. Common Mistakes in Explaining Death to Children
    • "Beth lost her mommy"
    • "Your Grandma is watching you from Heaven so you better be good."
    • "He went to sleep last night."
    • "He is on a long trip."
    • "It's God's will. He took him because he is so good."
  45. Signs of Suicidal Feelings
    • Child wishes to be with deceased in extreme ways
    • Hoping to punish the person who died by getting even
    • Attempting to regain power by saying, "You can't leave me, I'll leave you."
    • Child wishes o die to alleviate pain
    • Exhibits self-anger and danger
    • Flirts with death
    • Lose touch with reality
    • Become preoccupied with death
    • Cry out of help
  46. Myths about Grief and Children
    • Grief and mourning are the same
    • A child's grief is short in duration
    • Grief is stage like and predictable
    • Infants and toddlers are too young to grieve
    • Children are not affected by grieving and mouring adults
    • Expression of tears are weak and harmful
    • Children are vetter off if they don't attend funerals
    • Adults should instantly know how to explain and help children
    • The goal of helping should be to "get over" it
  47. What You Can Do for Infants
    • Keep the child's routine consistent
    • Provide a secure and stable environment
    • Allow family and friends to run errands and do chores
    • Give lots of love and attention
  48. What You Can Do For Preschoolers
    • Keep explanation simple
    • Encourage the explanation of death using "Dead" the body does not work anymore
    • Keep routines
    • Give permissions to cry
    • Give lots of love and attention
    • Let them play
    • Validate feelings
  49. What You Can Do for Early School Aged Children
    • Be honest in explanation
    • Give permission to cry
    • Encourage attendance at funeral
    • Validate feelings
    • Monitor the way they handle the loss
    • Provide lots of love and attention
    • Let them play
  50. What You Can Do for Middle School Ages
    • Be honest
    • Give permission to cry
    • Encourage funeral attendance, but respect choice
    • Encourage peer support
    • Validate feelings
    • Monitor your own coping mechanism
    • Give plenty of love and attention
    • Let them play
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