photo final

  1. Aperture
    the size of the lens opening though which light passes. also know as f-stop
  2. Additive color
    refers to the process of adding primary colors (of the given color system) together to produce secondary colors. RGB
  3. aperture-priority
    a mode of automatic exposure in which the photographer selects the aperture and the camera sets the shutter speed that will produce the correct exposure
  4. bit depth
    Number of bits for each pixel in an image. The higher the bit depth, the greater number of colors there are.
  5. bracket
    to make several exposures, some greater and some less than the exposer that is calculated to be correct
  6. burn
    increasing the light to an area to make it darker.
  7. CMYK
    the four colors used in printing with most digital printers: cyan, yellow, magenta and black
  8. color balance
    a film's or a sensor's response to the colors of a scene
  9. color temperature
    a numerical description of the color of light measured in degrees Kelvin (K)
  10. contrast
    Contrast in photography is the difference between dark and light. It also refers to contrasts created with colour, tones and texture.
  11. depth of feild
    the area between the nearest and farthest point from the camera that are acceptability sharp in an image
  12. DNG
    a camera - raw format that is open source, which means that any camera or software can use it in their product
  13. dodge
    blocking light makes that area of the print lighter
  14. dpi
    dots per inch
  15. dynamic range
    the difference between the lightest and darkest values in a scene or image
  16. electronic flash
    a tube containing a gas that produces a brief, brilliant flash light when electrified. Also called strobe.
  17. exposure meter
    an instrument that measures the amount of light falling on a subject (incident light meter) or the amount of light emitted or reflected by a subject (reflected-light meter) allowing aperture ans shutter speed settings to be computed. Commonly called a light meter.
  18. equivalent exposures
    a combination of apertures and shutter speeds that will produce the same exposure
  19. fast
    describes 1. a film, sensor or paper that is very sensitive to light 2. a lens that opens to a very wide aperture 3, a short shutter speed
  20. f-stop
    the common term for the aperture setting of a lens
  21. gray card
    a card that reflects a known percentage of the light falling on it, usually 18%
  22. guide number
    a number used to calculate the aperture that correctly exposes the sensor at a given ISO (typically 100) to find the aperture setting, divide the guide number by the distance
  23. histogram
    a graph that shows the distribution in a digital image of tones
  24. hot shoe
    a bracket on the top of a camera that attaches a flash unit and provides for communication between the camera and flash
  25. image size
    the physical size of a photograph
  26. incident light meter
    a exposure meter that measures the amount of light falling on the subject
  27. infrared
    the band of invisible rays just beyond red, Some photographic materials are sensitized to record infraed
  28. ISO
    a numerical rating that describes the sensitivity to light of film or of a digital camera's sensor. The ISO rating doubles as the sensitivity to light doubles
  29. JPEG
    a file formate that compresses photos by discarding pixels determined to be unnecessary. It is considered a lossy formate
  30. latitude
    the amount of over or underexposure possible without significant loss of quality of an image
  31. open up
    to increase the size of a lins aperture
  32. overexposed
    to give more than normal exposure to film, sensor or paper
  33. maximum aperture
    the setting on a lens that allows the most light to be admitted. typically anywhere from f1.4 to f4
  34. minimum aperture
    the setting on a lens that allows the least amount of light to be admitted. typically, anywhere between f16 to f32
  35. pan
    to follow the motion of a moving object with the camera
  36. pixel
    short for picture element
  37. polarizing filter
    a filter that reduces the reflection from nonmetallic surfaces by blocking light waves that are vibrating at selected angles to the filter. enhances blues.
  38. primary colors
    basic colors from which all other colors can be mixed
  39. prime lens
    a single focal length lens
  40. PSD
    adobe's proprietary format for photoshop documents
  41. RAW file
    a digital camera photograph in exactly the form it was captured by the camera
  42. reflected - light meter
    an exposure meter that measure the amount of light reflected or emitted by the subject
  43. shutter
    a mechanism that opens and closes to admit light into a camera for a measured length of time. the two most common are focal plane shutters (found in 35mm cameras) and lead shutters
  44. shutter prority
    a mode of automatic exposure in which the photographer selects the shutter speed and the camera sets the aperture that will produce the correct exposure
  45. shutter sync speed
    the highest shutter speed in a SLR camera at which the opening curtain has fully opened, allowing a proper flash exposure on the sensore. sometimes called x sync.
  46. SLR
    Single lens reflex. A camera in which the image is formed by the taking lens is reflected by a mirror onto a ground glass screen for viewing. the mirror swing out of the way just before exposure to let the image reach the film or sensor
  47. stop down
    to decrease the size of a lens opening
  48. subtractive color
    a way to produce colors by mixing dyes of the three subtractive primaries - cyan, magenta and yellow
  49. sync cord
    an electrical cord connecting a flash unit with a camera so that the two can be synchronized.
  50. ulraviolet
    the part of the spectrum just beyond violet. Ultraviolet light is invisible to the human eye but strongly affects photographic materials
  51. TIFF
    this format is the universal format for high - quality photographs and can be opened most programs that work with photographs. it is considered a lossless format.
  52. underexpose
    to give less than normal exposure to film, sensore or paper.
  53. wide open
    a lens setting where the lens is set at it's maximum aperture
  54. BIS
    batteries, ISO, Shutter (firsts things to check before you take photos)
  55. magic word
  56. aperture sequence
    1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32
  57. shutter sequence
    1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000, 1/4000
  58. f16 at 1/125 second will give the same expose as f11 at ___ second
  59. f2.0 at 1/1000 second will give you the same exposure as f4 at ___ second
  60. f5.6 at 1/500 second will give you the same exposure as f16 at ___ second
  61. f8 at 1/125 second will give you the same exposure as f___ at 1/15 second
  62. f4 at 1/500 second will give you the same exposure as f__ at 1/2000
  63. f.2.0 at 1/125 second will give you the same exposure as f__ at 1/30
  64. what is the most important thing of a lens?
    angle of view
  65. a larger aperture equals?
    less depth of field
  66. A smaller aperture equals?
    more depth of field
  67. things about a wide angle
    more distortion, objects seem larger when closer, lots of depth of field
  68. things about a macro lens
    very close up photos, cost more, slow max aperture
  69. things about telephoto lens
    long, 60mm more, compressed perpective, shallow depth of field, cost average to a lot, bulky
  70. things about zoom lens
    not as costly, quality not as good
  71. perpective is affected by?
    lens to subject distance not by lens focal length
  72. When you change the aperture from f-4 to 5.6 do you have more or less light?
  73. ways to change depth of field
    • 1) changing to shorter or longer foal length
    • 2) stepping closer or further away from subject
    • 3) closing or opening aperture
  74. RGB
    additive colors. red, green and blue. the primary colors of light used in digital imaging that, when combined, can creare a full color image on a computer monitor, tv, cameras
  75. subject failure
    scene that is not typical in tonal value (ie snow/coal). Usually gives wrong reading on camera light meters
  76. HDR
    high dynamic range.
  77. Image Upload 1
    • Image Upload 2
  78. sensor on camera is?
    • sees in black and white
    • only responds to light
    • filters are put on top of the sensor (RGB) to read color
  79. what color filter (RGB) is used more on sensors and why?
    green. the human eye is more sensitive to the color green.
  80. the hotter something gets the ____
    bluer things get (ie. sun)
  81. AWB
    auto white balance
  82. bluest and redest lights?
    • sun is bluest
    • tungsten lights is redest.
  83. types of directional lights and characteristics of them
    back lit, side lit, front lit

    • back - hard to expose/dramatic
    • side - emphasize texture
    • front - least dramatic straight foward
  84. about build in flashes
    good for 10-12 ft
  85. about hot shoe/external flashes
    • good for 15-20ft
    • flexible
    • eliminated red eye
  86. about hand mount flashes
    • powerful
    • recycle time is fast
  87. about studio flashes
    • very fast
    • powerful
    • can get light modifiers with variable power settings
  88. name hot light and their characteristics
    • tungsten (hot, cheap, not reliable)
    • quarts halogen (more consistent, dangerously hot)
  89. color exist in what ne spectrum?
    between 400-700nm
  90. additive colors
  91. subtrative colors
  92. daylight is at what calvin
  93. tungsten lights are what calvin
  94. order of bytes from smallest to largest
    bit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, terabyte
  95. bit depths of b/w
    8 bit - 252 tones
  96. bit depth of color
    24 bit - 16 + millons tones
  97. the first permanent picture was made by?
    Joseph Nicephore Niepce
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photo final
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