1. Prokaryotes (Domains)
    – Bacteria

    – Archaea
  2. Prokaryotes (features)
    • -astonishing genetic diversity
    • -Smallest of the unicellular organisms
    • -some in colonies
    • -thrive almost everywhere (too hot and cold)
    • -no membrane bound nucleus
    • -many division = many mutations
  3. Prokaryotes (shapes)Image Upload 1
    Cocci (spherical)
  4. Prokaryotes (shapes)Image Upload 2
    Bacilli (rod)
  5. Prokaryotes (shapes)Image Upload 3
    Spirillum (spiral)
  6. Prokaryotic cell wall
    –Maintains cell shape

    –Provides physical protection

    –Prevents the cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment
  7. Hypotonic
    more solutes inside cell than outside so cell gains water
  8. Plasmolysis
    cell shrinks away from wall
  9. Bacteria
    Autotrophs (oxidation of nonorganic)
  10. Gram stain
    classifies bacteria into two groups based on cell wall composition

    Gram-negative tend to be more pathogenic
  11. CapsuleImage Upload 4
    • -a sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein (covers cell wall)
    • -Allows cell to adhere to stuff
    • -Protects pathogenic bacteria from immune system
  12. Taxis
    • -Some Bacteria
    • -ability to move toward or away from certain stimuli
  13. Prokaryotic cells
    • -usually lack complex compartmentalization
    • -Some prokaryotes do have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions
  14. Nucleoid Region
    • where typical prokaryotic genome (ring of DNA
    • that is not surrounded by a membrane) is located
  15. Prokaryotes (rep)
    Prokaryotes reproduce quickly by binary fission
  16. Endospores
    Many prokaryotes form endospores, which can remain viable in harsh conditions for centuries
  17. Prokaryote Reproduction
    • transformation
    • transduction
    • conjugation
  18. Transformation
    • cell can take up and incorporate foreign DNA
    • from the surrounding environment
  19. Transduction
    the movement of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria)
  20. Conjugation
    the process where genetic material is transferred between bacterial cells

    Sex pili allow cells to connect and pull together for DNA transfer

    A piece of DNA called the F factor is required for the production of sex pili

    The F factor can exist as a separate plasmid or as DNA within the bacterial chromosome
  21. R plasmids
    carry genes for antibiotic resistance
  22. Metabolism
    • Photoautotrophy (plants)
    • Chemoautotrophy
    • Photoheterotrophy
    • Chemoheterotrophy (people)
  23. Obligate aerobes
    (prokaryotic metabolism with respect to oxygen)
    Require oxygen
  24. Facultative anaerobes
    (prokaryotic metabolism with respect to oxygen)
    Can survive with or without oxygen
  25. Obligate anaerobes
    (prokaryotic metabolism with respect to oxygen)
    Are poisoned by oxygen
  26. nitrogen fixation
    Prokaryotes can metabolize nitrogen
  27. biofilms
    In some prokaryotic species, metabolic cooperation occurs in surface-coating colonies
  28. Prokaryotes (relationships with other organisms)
    • mutualism (both benefit)
    • commensalism (only one benefits but other not harmed)
  29. bioremediation
    the use of organisms to remove pollutants from the environment
  30. Protists
    • Protists are an extremely diverse assortment of eukaryotes
    • Most protists are unicellular, though some are colonial or multicellular
  31. Protists (Reproduction)
    • Sexual
    • Asexual
    • Both
    • Variations thereof
  32. Euglenozoans (protist)
    Flagella with a unique internal crystalline or spiral rod

    • Includes:
    • Predatory heterotrophs
    • photosynthetic autotrophs
    • pathogenic parasites
  33. Euglenids (Euglenozoans)
    • mixotrophic
    • one or two flagella that emerge from a pocket at one end of the cell
    • Eyespot & light detector that enhance photosynthetic ability
  34. Alveolates (protist)
    Characterized by membrane-bounded sacs (alveoli) just under the plasma membrane
  35. Stramenopiles (protist)
    “hairy” and smooth flagella

    • Includes:
    • several groups of heterotrophs
    • certain groups of algae
  36. Cercozoans and Radiolarians (protist)
    • Some of the Amoebas (move and feed by means of pseudopodia)
    • Threadlike pseudopodia
  37. Amoebozoans (protist)
    • lobe-shaped, rather than threadlike, pseudopodia
    • Predators decomposers, & parasites (amoebic dysentery)
  38. Red & Green Algae (protist)
    • closest relatives of land plants
    • Complex life cycles (both asexual & sexual)
  39. Fungal Nutrition
    • heterotrophs but do not ingest their food
    • secrete exoenzymes into their surroundings that break down complex molecules and then absorb the remaining smaller compounds
  40. Fungal Lifestyles
    • Decomposers
    • Parasites
    • Mutualistic symbionts
  41. Fungal Body Structure
    consist of mycelia (networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption)
  42. mycelia
    networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorptionImage Upload 5
  43. Mycorrhizae
    mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots
  44. Fungal Reproduction
    propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or asexually
  45. Fungal Sexual Reproduction
    • Cell fusion (plasmogamy)
    • Nuclear fusion (karyogamy)
  46. Fungal Asexual Reproduction
    • molds
    • yeasts
  47. Ascomycetes (fungi)
    Defined by the production of sexual spores in saclike asci, which are usually contained in fruiting bodies (called ascocarps)

    Some species live with cyanobacteria or algae as lichens
  48. Basidiomycetes (fungi)
    • Includes:
    • mushrooms and shelf fungi

    Defined by a clublike structure called a basidium, a transient diploid stage in the life cycle
  49. Fungi & the Environment
    • Decomposers
    • Fungi form symbiotic relationships with plants, algae, and animals
    • –Mycorrhizae

    –Digestion for many animal species

  50. Parasites (fungi)
    • About 30% of known fungal species are parasites, mostly on or in plants
    • Some of the fungi that attack food crops are toxic to humans
Card Set
Lab Practical 2