Phrase commonly used in the 1 8~40�s and 1850�s. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the
U.S. to the Pacific.
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada
and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk�s slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the
54�40� latitude. Polk settled for the 49 latitude in 1846.
Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago
This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and California, to the U.S. The U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress� approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
Free Soil Party
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory. Supported the Wilmot Proviso, advocated federal aid for internal improvements and urged free government homesteads for settlers. Composed of disaffected Democrats and Northerners who believed in �Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men.� Condemned slavery because it destroyed opportunities for free white workers to rise up. It was the first widely inclusive party organized around the issue of slavery and confined to a single section. Foreshadowed the emergence of the Republican party.
Compromise of 1850: provisions, impact
Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico without restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, which greatly irritated the South. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the Underground Railroad.
Uncle Tom�s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom�s Cabin. It helped to crystalize the rift between the North and South.
It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $120 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave State.
Kansas - Nebraska Act, 1854
This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine of congressional
nonintervention in the territories. �Popular sovereignty� (vote of the people) would determine whether
Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free States.
Stephen A. Douglas
A moderate Illinois senator, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty
The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
Also known as the Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John Brown�s 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for four years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped precipitate the Civil War.
Sumner-Brooks Affair, 1856
Charles Sumner gave a two-day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him. Sumner was the first Republican martyr.
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas� admission to the union. It was rejected.
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four-year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The US, Supreme Court decided he couldn�t sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 during Illinois Senatorial campaign
A series of seven debates. The two candidates argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln�s position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldn�t force a territory to become a slave State against its will.
Panic of 1857
Began with the failure of the Ohio Life Insurance Company and spread to the urban East. The depression affected the industrial East and the wheat belt more than the South.
Lincoln�s �House Divided� speech
In his acceptance speech for his nomination to the Senate in June, 1858, Lincoln paraphrased from the Bible: �A house divided against itself cannot stand.� He continued, �I do not believe this government can continue half slave and half free, I do not expect the Union to be dissolved�I do not expect the house to fall�but I do believe it will cease to be divided.�
John Brown, Harpers Ferry Raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper�s Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
Democratic Party Conventions: Baltimore, Charleston
The Democratic Party split North and South. The Northern Democratic convention was held in Baltimore and the Southern in Charleston. Douglas was the Northern candidate and Breckenridge was the Southern (they
disagreed on slavery).
He was a moderate and wanted the union to stay together. After Southern States seceded from the Union, he urged the middle States to join the North.
John Breckinridge (1821 -1875)
Nominated by pro-slavers who had seceded from the Democratic convention, he was strongly for slavery and states rights.
Crittenden Compromise proposal
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in
December 1860. The bill offered a constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the
36�30� line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves.
Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the State be surren-dered to State authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson�s surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surren- dered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
At Bull Run, a creek in Northern Virginia, Confederate soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege
Richmond. Union troops fled back to Washington. Confederates didn�t realize their victory in time to follow up on
it. First major battle of the Civil War-both sides were ill-prepared.
Monitor and the Merrimac
First engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion of the
Chesapeake Bay known as Hampton Roads for five hours on March 9, 1862, ending in a draw. Monitor�Union.
Merrimac�Confederacy. Historians use the name of the original ship Merrimac on whose hull the Southern
ironclad was constructed, even though the official Confederate name was the CSS Virginia.
Lincoln believed that anti-war Northern Democrats harbored traitorous ideas and he labeled them �Copperheads,� poisonous snakes waiting to get him.
Suspension of habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
September 22, 1862 - Lincoln freed all slaves in the States that had seceded, after the Northern victory at the
Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
Financing of the war effort by North and South
The North was much richer than the South, and financed the war through loans, treasury notes, taxes and duties on imported goods. The South had financial problems because they printed their Confederate notes without backing them with gold or silver.
Lincoln�s Ten Percent Plan
Former Confederate States would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the
State agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment that outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was
John Wilkes Booth
An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn�t arrive at the scheduled place. On April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford�s Theatre and cried, �SIC Semper Tyrannis!� (�Thus always to tyrants!�) When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.
Wade-Davis Bill, veto, Wade-Davis Manifesto, 1864
Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.
A Democrat Southerner from Tennessee elected as vice president on the Union party ticket with Abraham Lincoln in 1864. When Lincoln was assassinated, Johnson became president. He opposed Radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. He was the first U.S. president to be impeached, but survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Thaddeus Stevens, Conquered Territory Theory
Stevens was the most powerful leader of the Radical Republican in the House of Representatives. He believed in harsh punishments for the South. Believed that conquered Southern States were not part of the Union, but were instead conquered territory, which the North could deal with however it liked.
Charles Sumner, State Suicide Theory
The same Senator who had been caned by Preston Brooks in 1856, Sumner returned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, which claimed the Southern States had relinquished their rights when they seceded. This, in effect, was suicide. This theory was used to justify the North taking military control of the South. Sumner was an outspoken radical Republican instrumental in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
Tenure of Office Act, 1866
Enacted by Radical Republicans, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the
Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson�s effort to remove
Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, whom he considered a spy for the Radicals in cabinet meetings, was seen as a
violation of the Tenure of Office Act and led to the impeachment of the president.
Election of 1876: Hayes and Tilden
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 1 84 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. Republicans did not concede votes won by Tilden in Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Oregon. These States submitted two sets of popular votes. To break the electoral deadlock, Congress sets up a 15-member Electoral Commission. Balance favored Republicans 8-7 and commission decided that Hayes was the winner; fraud was suspected.
Compromise of 1877
Rutherford B. Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South ending the reconstruction process.