investigation that gauges the probability of success of a proposed project and provides a rough assessment of the projects feasibility
- The feasibility study is the main task of the Systems Investigation phase.
- The feasibility study helps the organization choose between 3 options:
- 1) Do nothing and continue to use the existing system unchanged.
- 2) Modify or enhance the existing system.
- 3) Develop a new system.
Customer-Facing CRM Applications Vs. Customer-Touching CRM applications
- CF- areas where customers directly interact with the organization, including customer service and support, sales force automation, marketing, and campaign management
- CT- applications and technologies with which customers interact and typically help themselves
Pull Model vs. Push Model
- Pull- production process begins w/ customer order, companies make only what customers want, mass customization
- Push-prodct process begins w/ a forcast, predicts products and quantities customers will want, uses mass production, and "pushes" products out
- computer systems that attempt to mimic human experts by applying expertise in a specific domain.
- can support decision makers or completely replace them
approach that defines an initial list of user requirements, builds a prototype system, and then improves the system in several iterations based on users feedback
Customer touch point
any interaction between the customer and the oranization
B- a form of cross selling where an enterprise sells a group of products or services together at a lower price than the combined individual price of the products
sales strategy where organization will provide customers the opportunity to purchase higher-valued related products, instead of or along with the original item
the practice of marketing additional related products to customers based on a previous purchase
flow of materials, info, money, and services from raw material suppliers, thru factories and warehoused to the end customers. It also includes the organizations and processes that create and deliver products, information, an services to end customers
Upstream vs. Downstream
- U- where sourcing or procurement from external suppliers occurs
- D-where distribution takes place, frequently by external distributors
where packaging, assembly, or manufacturing takes place
consists of data that are related to demand, shipments, orders, returns, and schedules, as well as changes of these data
- are the physical products, raw materials, supplies, and so forth that flow along the chain
- also includes reverse flows
involve money tranfers, payments and credit card information and authorization, payment schedules, e-payments, and credit related data
Erratic shifts in orders up and down the supply chain
Types of Inventory Management
- Just-in-time inventory: a system in which a supplier delivers the precise number of parts to
- be assembled into a finished product at precisely the right time.
- Vendor-managed inventory: an inventory strategy where the supplier monitors a vendor’s
- inventory for a product or group of products and replenishes products when needed.
a network that connects parts of intranets of different organizations
a process by which organization goals are achieved thru the use of resources
Types of decisions
- Structured problems are routine and repetitive problems for which standard solutions exist.
- Unstructured problems are fuzzy, complex problems for which there are no cut-and-dried solutions.
- Semistructured problems are problems in which only some of the decision process phases are structured.
the process of searching for valuable business info in a large database, data warehouse, or data mart
A business intelligence system that provide rapid access to timely information and direct access to management reports
- P- short term efforts to create a specific business related outcome
- C- time, cost, and scope
The Project Management Process
- Project initiation: clearly defines the problem that the project is intended to solve and the goals that
- the project is to achieve.
- Project planning: every project objective and every activity associated with that objective is identified
- and sequenced.
- Project execution: work defined in the project management plan is performed to accomplish the
- project’s requirements.
- Project monitoring and control: determines whether the project is progressing as planned.
- Project completion: project is completed when it is formally accepted by the organization.
Systems Development Life Cycle
- Systems investigation
- Systems analysis
- Systems design
- Programming and testing
- Operation and maintenance
SDLC – Systems Investigation
- Begins with the business problem (or opportunity) followed by the feasibility analysis.
- Feasibility study
- Deliverable: Go/No-Go Decision
SDLC – System Analysis
- Is the examination of the business problem that the organization plans to solve with an information system.
- Main purpose is to gather information about the existing system to determine the requirements for the new or improved system.
- Deliverable is a set of system requirements, also called user requirements.
SDLC – Systems Design
- Describes how the system will accomplish this task.
- Deliverable is the technical design that specifies:
- System outputs, inputs, user interfaces.
- Hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel & procedures.
- Blueprint of how these components are integrated.
SDLC – Programming & Testing
- Programming involves the translation of a system’s design specification into computer code.
- Testing checks to see if the computer code will produce the expected and desired results under certain conditions.
- Testing is designed to delete errors (bugs) in the computer code.
SDLC – Systems Implementation/Systm Conversion
- Implementation or deployment is the process of converting from the old system to the new system. Four major conversion strategies:
- Direct conversion: Implementation process in which the old system is cut-off and the new system turned on at a certain point in time.
- Pilot conversion: Implementation process that introduces the new system in one part of the organization on a trial basis: when new system is working properly, it is introduced in other parts of the organization.
- Phased conversion: Implementation process that introduces components of the new system in stages, until the entire new system is operational.
- Parallel conversion: Implementation process in which the old system and the new system operate simultaneously for a period of time. Rarely used today if at all.
SLDC – Operation & Maintenance
Audits are performed to assess the system’s capabilities and to determine if it is being used correctly.
- Debugging: A process that continues throughout the life of the system.
- Updating: Updating the system to accommodate changes in business conditions.
- Maintenance: That adds new functionally to the system –adding new features to the existing system without disturbing its operation.
Operation of a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) Vendor
Method of delivering software in which a vendor hosts the applications and provides them as a service to customers over a network, typically the Internet
Types of Feasibility
- Technical feasibility: Assessment of whether hardware, software and communications components can be developed and /or acquired to solve a business problem.
- Economic feasibility: Assessment of whether a project is an acceptable financial risk and if the organization can afford the expense and time needed to complete it.
- Organizational feasibility: Organization’s ability to access the proposed project.
- Behavioural feasibility: Assessment of the human issues involved in a proposed project, including resistance to change and skills and training needs.
Adding functions to an information system after the project has begun