1. Flexion
    decreasing the angle of the joint
  2. Extension
    increasing the angle of a joint
  3. Hyperextension
    further extension or straightening of a joint
  4. Abduction
    movement of the bone away from the midline of the body
  5. Adduction
    movement of the bone toward the midline of the body
  6. Rotation
    movement of the bone around its central axis
  7. Circumduction
    movement of the distal part of the bone in a circle while the proximal end remains fixed
  8. Eversion
    turning the sole of the foot outward by moving the ankle joint
  9. Inversion
    turning the sole of the foot inward by moving the ankle joint
  10. pronation
    moving the bones of the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces downward when held in front of the body
  11. supination
    moving the bones of the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces upward when held in front of the body
  12. the extensor muscles or antigravity muscles
    carry the major load as they keep the body upright
  13. proprioception
    is the term used to describe awareness of posture, movement and changes in equilibrium and the knowledge of position, weight and resistance of objects in relation to the body
  14. A person maintains balance as long as the line of gravity
    (an imaginary vertical line drawn through the center of gravity) passes through the center of gravity (the point which all of bodys mass is centered) and the base of support (the foundation on which the body rest).
  15. Intensity
    of exercise can be measured by target heart rate ,talk test or borg scale of perceived exertion.
  16. Types of exercise
    3 times a week, total of 30 minutes a day, measured by the heart rate, talk test and borg test. Moderate intensity
  17. Type of exercise:
    The flexor muscles are stronger than the extensor muscles so when a person is inactive, the joints are pulled into a flexed (bent) position. The muscle could become permanently shortened and the joint fixed in a flexed position (contracture).
  18. coordinated movement
    balanced, smooth, purposeful movement
  19. Three components to coordinated movement ..
    Cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia
  20. One component of coordinated movement is:
    cerebral cortex
    sends out a signal and tells us to pick the cup up. It initiates voluntary motor activity
  21. One component of coordinated movement is cerebellum
    translations instructions, tells which muscle what to do. With a cerebellum injury, the client movements would become clumsy, unsure, and uncoordinated
  22. One component of coordinated movement is:
    basal ganglia
    maintains posture
  23. Benefits of exercise: Musculoskeletal
    decreases muscle atropy, bone density and strength is maintained through weight bearing. The stress between weight bearing and high impact movement maintains a balance between osteoblasts ( bone building cells) and osteoclats ( bone reabsorption and breakdown cells).
  24. Disuse osteoporosis
    without the stress of weight bearing activity, the bones demineralize. They are depleted of calcium, which gives the bones strength and density.
  25. Disuse atrophy
    unused muscles atrophy ( decrease in size), losing most of their strength and normal functions.
  26. Contractures
    irreversible except by surgery, a shortening of the muscle and fixing of the joint. Ex. Foot drop.
  27. Stiffness and pain in the joint
    without movement the collagen tissues at the joint becomes permanently immobile (ankylosed)
  28. Cardiovascular system - Diminished cardiac reserve
    • decreased mobility creates a imbalance in the autonomic nervous system;
    • immobilized person may experience tachycardia with even minimal exertion, edema thrombus formation. Venous vasodilation, and statis
  29. Respiratory
    decreased respiratory movement, pooling of respiratory secretions,atelectasis( blocking of a bronchiole), hypostatic pneumonia,
  30. Metabolic system
    decreased metabolic rate, negative nitrogen balance(anabolism and catabolism), anorexia (loss of appetite) ,negative calcium balance,
  31. Urinary system- urinary statis
    stopping or slowing down of flow
  32. Renal calculi
  33. urinary retention
    accumulation, urinary incontinence or infection.
  34. Most common organism for UTIs is
    Escherichia coli
  35. Psychoneurologic system
    Gastrointestinal system and Integumentary system, reduced skin tugor, skin breakdown
  36. Four levels of diagnosing activity:
    • level 1 - walk regular pace, ground level, shortness of breath above normal after climbing a flight of stairs
    • Level 2 - walk one city block, one level ground, indefinitely, climb one flight of stairs slowing without stopping.
    • Level 3 – walk no more than 50 feet on level ground without stopping, unable to climb one flight of stairs without stopping
    • Level 4 - dyspnea - a fatigue at rest
  37. Peristatsis
    natural bowel movement
  38. Risk for activity intolerance:
    impaired physical mobility, impaired bed mobility, impaired walking, impaired wheelchair mobility, impaired transferred alerts
  39. Preventing back injuries, pg 1131—
    lift no more weight than 51 pds,firm mattress, soft pillow, knees slightly higher than hips when sitting; to lift, stand with feet apart , wide base, let legs bear most of the burden.
  40. Orthopeneic
    positionsitting up in bed or on the side of the bed, table across lab, ciliates respiration
  41. Fowlers position
    head raised 30 to 90 degrees, pillow at head, lumbar, knees may or may not be flexed, feet in plantar position. Position for people who have difficulty breathing
  42. Dorsal recumbent position
    black lying. Or supine position. head and shoulders slightly elevated. Used to facilitate healing
  43. Prone position
    client lies on abdomen, head turned to one side, pillow under abdomen and head. Promotes drainage from the mouth and is esp useful for unconscious clients.Should only be used when the clients back is aligned correctly.
  44. Lateral position
    side lying, pillow under head, between knees, and in front of chest. Promotes good back alignment, reduces Lordosis, good for resting and sleeping clients
  45. Sims position
    posture halfway between prone and lateral, one arm by pillow and one arm behind and down.towel role for feet. Helps with drainage,
  46. Capillary Blood glucose, Ch 34, pg 805-807
    Normal blood sugar is 60-120. For elders who have poor circulation- warm their hands with a warm washcloth for a few minutes.
  47. Active ROM exercises
    isotonic exercises in which the client moves each joint in the body through its complete range, maximally stretching all muscle groups within each plane over the joint
  48. Activity tolerance
    the type and amount of exercise or daily activities an individual is able to perform
  49. Activity-exercise pattern
    refers to a person's pattern of exercise, activity, leisure, and recreation
  50. Aerobic exercise
    any activity during which the body takes in more or an equal amount of oxygen than it expends
  51. Ambulation
    the act of walking
  52. Anabolism
    a process in which simple substances are converted by the body cells into more complex substances (e.g., building tissue, positive nitrogen balance)
  53. Anaerobic exercise
    involves activity in which the muscles cannot draw out enough oxygen from the blood stream; used in endurance training
  54. Ankylosed
    permanently immobile joints
  55. Anorexia
    lack of appetite
  56. Atrophy
    wasting away; decrease in size of organ or tissue (e.g., muscle)
  57. Base of support
    the area on which an object rests
  58. Bed rest
    strict confinement to bed (complete bed rest), or the client may be allowed to use a bedside commode or have bathroom privileges
  59. Calculi
    renal stones
  60. Catabolism
    a process in which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances (e.g., breakdown of tissue)
  61. Center of gravity
    the point at which the mass (weight) of the body is centered
  62. Contracture
    permanent shortening of a muscle and subsequent shortening of tendons and ligaments
  63. Crepitation
    • (1) a dry, crackling sound like that of crumpled cellophane, produced by air in the subcutaneous tissue or by air moving through fluid in the alveoli of the lungs;
    • (2) a crackling, grating sound produced by bone rubbing against bone
  64. Dorsal position
    back-lying position without a pillow
  65. Dorsal recumbent position
    a back-lying position with the head and shoulders slightly elevated
  66. Embolus
    a blood clot (or a substance such as air) that has moved from its place of origin and is causing obstruction to circulation elsewhere (plural: emboli)
  67. Exercise
    a type of physical activity; a planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness
  68. Flaccid
    weak or lax
  69. Fowler's position
    a bed sitting position with the head of the bed raised to 45 degrees
  70. Gait
    the way a person walks
  71. High Fowler's position
    a bed-sitting position in which the head of the bed is elevated 90 degrees
  72. Hypertrophy
    enlargement of a muscle or organ
  73. Isokinetic (resistive) exercise
    muscle contraction or tension against resistance. Ex weight lifting and body building
  74. Isometric (static or setting) exercise
    tensing of a muscle against an immovable outer resistance, which does not change muscle length or produce joint motion Ex. Kegal, quad sets.
  75. Isotonic (dynamic) exercise
    exercise in which muscle tension is constant and the muscle shortens to produce muscle contraction and active movement. Ex running, walking,
  76. Lateral position
    a side-lying position
  77. Line of gravity
    an imaginary vertical line running through the center of gravity
  78. Logrolling
    a technique used to turn a client whose body must at all times be kept in straight alignment (like a log)
  79. Lordosis
    an exaggerated concavity in the lumbar region of the vertebral column
  80. Low Fowler's position
    a bed-sitting position in which the head of the bed is elevated between 15 and 45 degrees, with or without knee flexion
  81. Mobility
    ability to move about freely, easily, and purposefully in the environment
  82. Orthopneic position
    a sitting position to relieve respiratory difficulty in which the client leans over and is supported by an overbed table across the lap
  83. Pace
    number of steps taken per minute or the distance taken in one step when walking
  84. Passive ROM exercises
    another person moves each of the client's joints through its complete range of movement, maximally stretching all muscle groups within each plane over each joint
  85. Physical activity
    bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure and produces progressive health benefits
  86. Prone position
    face-lying position, with or without a small pillow
  87. Range of motion (ROM)
    the degree of movement possible for each joint
  88. Sims' position
    side-lying position with lowermost arm behind the body and uppermost leg flexed
  89. Spastic
    describing the sudden, prolonged involuntary muscle contractions of clients with damage to the central nervous system
  90. Thrombus
    a solid mass of blood constituents in the circulatory system; a clot (plural: thrombi)
  91. Tripod (triangle) position
    the proper standing position with crutches; crutches are placed about 15 cm (6 in) in front of the feet and out laterally about 15 cm (6 in), creating a wide base of support
  92. Urinary incontinence
    a temporary or permanent inability of the external sphincter muscles to control the flow of urine from the bladder
  93. Urinary reflux
    backward flow of urine
  94. Urinary retention
    the accumulation of urine in the bladder and inability of the bladder to empty itself
  95. Urinary stasis
    stagnation of urinary flow
  96. Valsalva maneuver
    forceful exhalation against a closed glottis, which increases intrathoracic pressure and thus interferes with venous blood return to the heart
  97. Vital capacity
    the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation
Card Set
bed lying positions, nursing, hygiene, terms, exercise, ROM terms