OT Essential v2.txt

  1. 1550-1200 BC
    late bronze age
  2. 1446 BC
    exodus: early date
  3. 1250 BC
    exodus: late date
  4. 1200 BC
    sea peoples incursion (including Philistines)
  5. 1200-539 BC
    Iron age
  6. 1050-931 BC
    Reigns of Saul, David, & Solomon (United Monarchy)
  7. 931 BC
    Division of the Kingdom
  8. 722 BC
    Fall of Samaria (Northern Kingdom)
  9. 701 BC
    Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah
  10. 612 BC
    Fall of Nineveh (capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire)
  11. 609 BC
    Battle of Megiddo (Josiah's Death)
  12. 605 BC
    1st Deportation (including Daniel)
  13. 597 BC
    2nd Deportation (including Jehoiachin and Ezekiel)
  14. 587 BC
    3rd deportation (including Zedekiah), Fall of Jerusalem, 1st temple destroyed
  15. 539 BC
    Fall of Babylon (capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire)
  16. 538 BC
    Decree of Cyrus II/ First Return
  17. 515 BC
    2nd temple is completed
  18. 458 BC
    Second Return (Ezra)
  19. 445 BC
    Third Return (Nehemiah)
  20. Adam and Eve
    the first human beings God created
  21. Abraham
    the father of the Israelites; given a covenant by God, promising him a name and a family and that through him all nations would be blessed
  22. Sarah
    wife of Abraham who had been barren but gave birth to Isaac when she was 90
  23. Jacob
    son of Isaac, younger twin of Esau, and father of twelve sons from whom came the twelve tribes of Israel
  24. Joseph
    Jacob's favorite son, sold into slavery by his brothers, from where he rose to a position of power in Egypt
  25. Aaron
    brother of Moses and first high priest of Israel
  26. Moses
    God's chosen leader to bring the Israelites out of Egypt to the border of the Promised Land; received the Ten Commandments from God on Mount Sinai
  27. Joshua
    Successor to Moses, commissioned by God to secure and apportion the land of Canaan to the Israelites
  28. Deborah
    Prophetess & judge who accompanied the army in the defeat of the Canaanites
  29. Gideon
    Judge of Israel who delivered Israel from the hands of the Midianites; Known for lack of confidence that led him to use a fleece oracle to get God to affirm his plan
  30. Ruth
    Moabitess during the judges period, who through her faithfulness to Naomi eventually became the wife of Boaz and ancestor of David
  31. Samuel
    Hannah's son, who became the last judge of Israel as well as the prophet and priest who anointed both Saul and David as king
  32. Saul
    First king of Israel's monarchy, whose direct acts of disobedience led God to later reject his kingship
  33. David
    Israel's greatest king, with whom God made a covenant to secure his throne and from whose lines Jesus eventually came
  34. Solomon
    son and successor of David as king of Israel, known for his wisdom, wealth, and many wives
  35. Ahab
    Son of Omri, king of the Northern Kingdom; influenced to worship Baal by his Phoenician wife, Jezebel; opposed by Elijah
  36. Elijah
    Prophet to Israel during the reigns of Ahab and Ahaziah, whose mission was to demonstrate that Baal is impotent and Yahweh is king
  37. Elisha
    Elijah's successor; prophet to Israel; advisor to kings; led Sons of the Prophets
  38. Hezekiah
    Son of Ahaz; one of the greatest kings of the Southern Kingdom
  39. Josiah
    Son of Amon; King of Judah known for extensive religious reforms
  40. Daniel
    Israelite exile trained as a royal adviser, serving Babylonian and Persian kings in Babylon; noted for his ability to interpret dreams
  41. Zerubbabel
    leader of a remnant of Israelites returning to Jerusalem from Exile in Babylon; helped rebuild the temple
  42. Esther
    Jewish queen of Persia who with her uncle, Mordecai, protected her people from Haman's annihilation plot
  43. Ezra
    Priest and scribe after the return from the exile who played a vital role in re-establishing the law among the Jews
  44. Nehemiah
    Governor over the returned exiles who led in rebuilding Jerusalem's walls
  45. Sennacherib (704-681 bc)
    Assyrian king who invaded Judah during Hezekiah's reign
  46. Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 bc)
    King of Babylon who invaded Judah and destroyed Jerusalem and the temple and took the people of Judah into exile
  47. Belshazzar (550?-539)
    Babylonian king who called for Daniel to interpret the cryptic handwriting on the wall
  48. Cyrus (559/539-530)
    King of Persia who conquered Babylon twenty years later and allowed the Jews to return to their land and rebuild the temple in Jerusalem
  49. Ahasueras/Xerxes (486-464)
    Son of Darius the Great and the Persian king in the book of Esther; known for his wars with the Greeks
  50. Enuma Elish
    Babylonian praise hymn to their chief god Marduk, recounting his ascension to the head of the pantheon. Dates to ca. 1200 bc and contains a creation account
  51. Gilgamesh
    Epic from second millennium BC that records the exploits of Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, and his companion, Enkidu, and ultimately the king's search for immortality. Includes an account of a devastating flood that destroyed humanity
  52. Treaty/ Covenant
    Hittite treaties from second millennium BC and Assyrian treaties from first millennium that use a literary format similar to that which the OT uses for the covenant
  53. Atrahasis Epic
    Akkadian text from early in second millennium BC that has an account of creation, followed by population growth and then a flood that destroys the human race
  54. House of David Inscription
    Fragments of an Aramaic royal inscription that recounts a defeat of the kings of Israel and Judah by an Aramean king in the 9th century (Hazael). Identifies the king of Judah as belonging to the house of David--the only reference to David in contemporary sources outside of the Bible
  55. Sennacherib Prism
    Royal inscription of the Assyrian king, telling of his siege of Jerusalem at the time of Hezekiah
  56. Balaam Text of Deir 'Allah
    painted text on a plaster wall from the eighth century BC, recording a prophecy of Balaam about the displeasure of the divine council
  57. Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
    Royal inscription & relief that record the paying of tribute by Israelite king Jehu and portrays him bowing before the Assyrian king (841 BC)
  58. Silver Scrolls
    small, rolled silver amulets containing Numbers 6:24-26 -- oldest portion of Scripture found (7th century BC) -- from Ketef Hinnom tomb
  59. Merneptah Stele
    royal inscription by an Egyptian Pharaoh concerning his conquests from just before 1200. Includes the earliest mention of Israel outside the Bible
  60. Hammurabi Stele
    collection of legal sayings from about 1750 BC, gathered by the Babylonian king to demonstrate his wisdom to the gods and the future kings
  61. Cyrus Cylinder
    Decree written by Cyrus proclaiming freedom of a group of people to rebuild their temple with help from the treasury, just as the Bible indicates he did for Israel
  62. Mount Sinai
    mountain where God appeared and gave the law to Moses. exact location unknown but traditionally placed in the southern Sinai Peninsula
  63. Mount Zion
    elevated section of Jerusalem where the temple was situated
  64. Valley of Jezreel
    flat, fertile section of land that cuts E-W across Israel from Mount Carmel in the west to the towns of Jezreel and Beth-shean near the Jordan River just south of the Sea of Galilee
  65. Shephelah
    Rolling hills that transition from the high central mountains around Jerusalem to the coastal plains where the Philistine cities were located
  66. Coastal Road
    main route from Egypt up to Syria and over to Mesopotamia, used by merchants and armies alike. Began in Memphis, Egypt, crossed the northern Sinai, turned north up the coast, then jogged east through the Valley of Jezreel and over to Damascus. Continued northeast until it reached the northwestern spur of the Euphrates
  67. Negev
    area south of the hill country of Judah, bordered on the south by a steppe region called the "wilderness." Focal point: the valley east of Beersheba over to Arad, extending about 10 miles north and south of Beersheba
  68. Jordan Valley
    deep depression marking a fault line through which the Jordan River flows. Lowest elevation on earth, going down to about 1,300 feet below sea level athe Dead Sea
  69. Central Hill country
    Ridge of mountains running N-S through Israel from north of Hebron down to the Valley of Jezreel
  70. Judean Wilderness
    Arid section of wilderness running N-S between Jerusalem and the Jordan valley and upper section of the Dead Sea
  71. Transjordanian Plateau
    Steppe region running N-S on east side of the Jordan Valley
  72. Genesis
    creation, fall, flood, Babel and the covenant established through Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
  73. Exodus
    Israel's deliverance from Egypt, covenant through Moses, and God's presence in the tabernacle
  74. Leviticus
    ritual instructions on holy worship and holy living
  75. Numbers Israel's organization and tests of obedience from Sinai to Moab
  76. Deuteronomy
    renewal of Mosaic covenant for the second generation after the exodus
  77. Joshua
    Israel's conquest and possession of Canaan under Joshua's leadership
  78. Judges
    Israel's cycle of apostasy, oppression, and deliverance during the rule of the judges
  79. Ruth
    God's blessings on David's faithful ancestors during the rule of the judges
  80. Books of Samuel
    Theocracy, the leadership of Samuel, and the reigns of Saul and David over the United Kingdom
  81. Books of Kings
    the United Kingdom under Solomon and the division, deterioration, and destruction of Israel and Judah
  82. Books of Chronicles
    lessons about obedience from the spiritual history of the Southern Kingdom
  83. Ezra
    The first two returns from Babylonian captivity; restoration of Israels' temple and community
  84. Nehemiah
    the third return from Babylonian captivity: restoration of Jerusalem's wall and the covenant
  85. Esther
    God's providence over his people during the Babylonian captivity
  86. Job
    God's wisdom and justice in human suffering
  87. Psalms
    Praise the Lord our King!
  88. Proverbs
    Righteous living through the pursuit of wisdom and the fear of the Lord
  89. Ecclesiastes
    futility of searching for meaning in life apart from the fear of God
  90. Song of Songs
    celebration of the power and beauty of love
  91. Isaiah
    God's plans for judgment and deliverance through Messiah in the near and distant future
  92. Jeremiah
    Impending judgment on Jerusalem and the necessity of repentnace
  93. Lamentations
    Laments over the destruction of Jerusalem
  94. Ezekiel
    Judgment on Judah and the nations and the future restoration of God's presence
  95. Daniel
    Stories and visions from the Babylonian captivity about God's sovereignty over his people and over kings and nations
  96. Hosea
    God's judgment and loyal love for adulterous Israel
  97. Joel
    Call for Judah's repentance following a locust plague and future judgment and blessing in the Day of the Lord
  98. Amos
    God's coming judgment on Israel for moral corruption and social injustice
  99. Obadiah
    Judgment on Edom
  100. Jonah
    God's compassion for the undeserving contrasted to the lack of compassion in Jonah and Israel
  101. Micah
    Impending judgment on Israel and Judah and future restoration through Messiah
  102. Nahum
    Judgment on Assyria
  103. Habakkuk
    Questions about God's justice and sovereignty in relation to Babylon and the nations
  104. Zephaniah
    Coming judgment on Judah prefiguring the Day of the Lord
  105. Haggai
    Call to Israel's returned exiles to complete the rebuilding of the temple
  106. Zephariah
    Call to repentance among the returned exiles and the comfort of Messiah's future restoration
  107. Malachi
    Call to repentance in light of God's covenant love for Israel
Card Set
OT Essential v2.txt
OT Essential