What is the function of the lymphatic system?
The primary function of the lymph system is to drain vascular fluid from the bodies tissues and return them to the venous circulation.
How does this system drain?
This system starts peripherally, then continues centrally into collecting ducts and ultimately into subclavian viens.
Why is it important that the lymph system exist?
This system drains that fluid that the veins cannot absorb. This system prevents edema, the build up of interstitial fluids.
What is the function of the lymph nodes?
They trap and destroy micororganisms, foreign materials, dead blood cells and abnormal cells.
What percent of total body weight does the lymph fluid make up?
What happens to the lymph fluid after it is filtered?
It travels to the right lymphatic duct, which drains the upper right side of the body or the thorasic duct, which drains the rest of the body
The lymphatic system traps and destroys (immune function), filters (vascular function), and what is the third function of the lymphatic system?
The third function is to absorb lipids from the small interstines into the bloodstream.
Every tissue that is supplied by lymphatic vessels has lymphatic vessels except for _______?
the brain and the placenta
What WBC do lymph nodes primarily contain?
What happens to our lymph nodes as we age?
They decrease in size and number, are more likely to be fibrotic and fatty and are less likely to be able to resist infection.
What would a malignancy look like?
Hard and discrete
Fixed to the underlying tissue
Enlarged, but without inflammation
Describe malignant lymphoma/Hodkins Disease?
Most commonly, painless enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes
assymptomatic and progressive
sometimes matted and generally feel very firm
What do you look for when you inspect superficial lymph nodes?
red streaks - lymphangitis (to find the infection site, inspect distal to the inflammation)
transillumination - cysts transilluminate, nodes do not
itching - some nodes cause pruritis
When palpating the lymph node, which fingers do you use and what are you looking for?
You use the 2nd, 3rd and 4th finger pads
- You access for:
- size, consistency, mobility or fixation to the surrounding tissues, tenderness on touch or rebound, and warmth.
Can pulsation occur with the lymph nodes?
Pulsation occurs in the arteries, not in the lymph nodes.
If you find an enlarged lymph node, what do you look for?
primary site -
all associated nodes (that the nodes drains into)
How many cervical lymph nodes are there?
There are ten (10) cervical lymph nodes
What are the names of the cervical lymph nodes?
- preauricular - anterior to the targus of the ear
- postauricular - over the mastoid process
occipital - base of the skull
retropharyngeal - angle of the mandible (tonsilar)
submaxillary - midway between the angle of the jaw and the tip of the mandible
submental - posterior tip of the mandible
superficial posterior cervical - anterior border of the trapezius muscle
deep cervical chain - internal jugular, deep to sternocleidomastoid muscle
supraclavicular - just above the clavical
How many axillary lymph nodes are there?
There are five.
What are the names and locations of the axillary lymph nodes?
Infraclavicular - below the anterior clavical
Lateral (brachial) - against head of the humerous
Central - deep within the axilla
Subscapular - posterior
Pectoral - anterior