What is made of many similar cells with a structral closeness and relatonship that allows a function that no single cell can preform?
Formed when the two nearest neighboring atoms have a large difference in electronegativity.
What is the overall charge of an atom?
The number of protons in an atom.
The number of protons plus the numberof neutrons.
What does it mean when water is a polar molecule?
It has a partial positive charge and partial negative charge regions.
Hydrogen bonds only exist between seperate molecule.
A (what) is a weak acid and a weak base in a single compound.
Buffers tend to keep a certain ratio or concentration of H+ s around them.
What are buffers two main attributes?
1. Maintain the pH of a solution, resisting changes in the pH when acids or bases are added, or when more H+ s enter the solution the buffer absorbs the "extra" H+s, up to a point, keeping the free [H+], or pH, the same.
2. Buffers also tend to make weak acids out of strong ones, and weak bases out of strong one.
What class do steroids belong to?
What kind of molecule makes the core of enzymes?
Where the action of the effector enhances the effect of a stimulus that provokes effector action. Wherein the error signal gets larger and larger as time passes. Used when a large, quick change from a value is needed. e.g., blood clotting, uterine contractions during labor, ion flow through membranes during electrical signals called action potentials. These mechanisms are momentary, and are turned on and off by electrical or chemical signals.
Where the action of the effectors opposes the effectors opposes the effect of a stimulus that provokes effector action. The most common kind of control. The error signal gets smaller and smaller as the negative feedback operation continues. Used to maintain steady values, e.g., concentration of substances, pressures. They operate continuously and have a tone.
The maintenance of a relatively stable internal enviroment of vital structures in which cells bathe.
What are the 2 mechanisms for regenerating ATP?
1. Substrate phosphorilation
2. Oxidative phosphorilation
What is a rate limiting step?
The slowest step where you have a chain of steps found usually in the beginning.
What is anatomy?
The study of structure.
What is physiology?
The study of functions of life.
What does it mean when there is an even number of electrons?
It is inert meaning it cannot react or bond.
At the end of glycolysis, what do you have?
2 pyruvic acids & 2 ATPs
If you go beyond glycolysis, what else do you get?
30 more ATP's generated and heat.
What is common between organic molecules?
They are carbon based.
Your knee's are ( ) to your ankles.
Where do you find electrons in an atom?
Orbit or energy level
Links the nearest neighboring atoms to form a molecule. They are formed when the two nearest neighboring atoms have zero, minimal, or moderate differences in electronegativities.
What is the most important part of an atom?
In an atom, what is it about protons and electrons that make atoms electrically neutral?
There must be an equal number of electrons and protons.
What do enzymes do for a chemical reaction?
Lowers the activation energy
Your thumb's are pointed ( ).
Fatty acid chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms are referred to as ( ).
Fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms are said to be ( ).
What is the cavity above your diaphragm?
What cavity is below your diaphragm?
What is an enzyme?
Protein based catalyst
If the covalent bond is made up of two atoms with a zero difference in electronegativity, or between two atoms with a minimal difference, then the bond will be a ( ) covalent bond.
If the covalent bond is made of two atoms with a moderate difference in electronegativity the bond will be a ( ) covalent bond.
All hydrogen bonds seperate molecules.
What are salts made of?
A bunch of ions.
Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above.
Ex: The head is superior to the abdomen
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below.
Ex: The navel is inferior to the chin
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of.
Ex: The breastbone is anterior to the spine
Toward or at the back of the body; behind.
Ex: The heart is posterior to the breastbone
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.
Ex: The heart is medial to the arm
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of.
Ex: The arms are lateral to the chest
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure.
Ex: The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder.
Closer to the origin of the body part of the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Ex: The elbow is proximal to the wrist
Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Ex: The knee is distal to the thigh
Toward or at the body surface.
Ex: The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles