Contains cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia.
Peripheral Nervous System
Covers the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebral meninges, dura, arachnoid and pia maters.
The brain and spinal cord are suspended in this.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Transmit electrical signals. Found in grey matter of CNS and ganglia.
Nonexcitable, surround and wrap neurons.
Neuroglial cells (support cells)
Neuroglia in the CNS
Astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
Neuroglia in the PNS
Satellite cells and Schwann cells
Most abundant glial cell type. They take up and release ions to control the environment around neurons. They recapture and recycle neurotransmitters.
Smallest and least abundant neuroglia.
Line the central cavity of the spinal cord and brain.
Produce myelin sheaths in CNS.
Surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia.
Surrond axons in the PNS and forms myelin sheath around axons in the PNS.
The site at which neurons communicate.
Depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane.
Reduces the ability of the postsynaptic neuron to generate an action potential.
Layer of delicate connective tissues surrounding the axon.
Groups of axons bound into bundles.
Connective tissue surrounding a nerve fasicle.
The whole nerve surrounded by this tough fibrous sheath.
Picked up by sensor receptors and carried by nerve fibers of PNS to the CNS.
Sensory (afferent) signal
Carried away from the CNS and innervates muscles and glands.
Motor (efferent) signals
Touch, pain, pressure, vibration, temperature, and proprioception in skin, body wall, and limbs. Specializes in hearing, equilibrium, vision, and smell.
Somatic sensory (afferent)
Stretch, pain, temperature, chemical changes, and irritation in viscera; nausea and hunger. Specializes in taste.
Visceral sensory (afferent)
Motor innervation of all skeletal muscles (except pharyngeal arch muscles)
Somatic motor (efferent)
Motor innervation of pharyngeal arch muscles
Branchial motor (efferent)
Motor innervation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands; equivalent to autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Visceral motor (efferent)
Site where stimulus acts.
Transmits afferent impulses to the CNS
Consists of one or more synapses in the CNS
Conducts efferent impulses from integration center to an effector.
A muscle or gland cell that responds to efferent impulses by contracting or secreting.
The simplest and fastest of all reflexes that consists of only one synapse.
The more common type of reflex where most have a single interneuron between the sensory and motor neuron.
Functions in automatic behaviors necessary for survival, is a passageway for all fiber tracts running between the cerebrum and the spinal cord, and is heavily involved with the innervation of the face and head.
Smoothes and coordinates body movements and helps maintain equilibrium.
Enables humans to be aware of ourselves and our sensations, initiates and controls voluntary movements, communicates, remembers, and understands.
Cooperates with the cerebral cortex in controlling movements and receives input from many different cortical areas.
Is situated lateral to the thalamus, is divided by a band of nerve fibers called the internal capsule into the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus.
Is composed of the Globus pallidus and Putamen.
Connects the third verticle with the lateral ventricles.