1. Christine de Pizan
    1364 – 1430; born in Italy and raised at court of Charles V; father insisted she was given education received by young men; widowed at 24 and spent rest of life following literary pursuits; author of “The Book of the City of Ladies;” Henry VII required knights and gentry to read work on chivalry; one of first explicitly feminist writers in European history
  2. Kabbalah
    or Cabala; Jewish mystical understanding of Yahweh using numerological system which developed during High Middle Ages; ascribe numbers to Hebrew letters to attain mystical understanding of divinity; more personal, affective, emotional relationship with divinity → popular religiosity and striving to become close to divinity without priest/rabbi (intermediary)
  3. agricultural revolution
    changes in weather encouraged growth and refinement economy and agricultural developments; three-field system = rotation of cropped and fallow land to increase fertility of soil; new technology such as new collars that don’t choke animals, new heavy plow, windmills, and watermills; doubled crop yields and introduced more complex diet; increased life expectancies for men and women  population boom  eventual Black Death; also contributed to commercial revolution
  4. St. Guinefort
    local greyhound French saint of 13th century; serpent crawled into infant’s cradle, dog attacked to protect; baby falls out of crib; parents come in and see no baby, dog’s muzzle covered in blood, think dog killed baby; kill dog  family goes to ruin; considered problematic by Church because families left babies by tree overnight; if gone by morning, baby had been infected by devil
  5. Cathars/Albigensians
    group condemned as heretics by papacy because of dualist thought descending from Zoroastrianism, located mostly in so. France and no. Italy; expanded quickly and frightened Innocent III, who viewed them as cancer in body of Christendom; supported by Counts of Toulouse; launched Albigensian Crusade against from 1209 – 1229  Dominicans preached against them, savage war by French kings (Franco-Papal alliance) that brought royal authority into Mediterranean
  6. Eleanor of Aquitaine
    widow of Louis VII of France, then married Henry II of England; c. 1122 – 1204; caused many problems for Henry encouraged two sons, Richard “Coeur de Lion” and John, to rebel against father in favor of continental holdings of France for sons; disenfranchised husband, whom she detested; allowed to gain power despite position of women at that point in history; one of most powerful, savvy women of time
  7. Black Death
    modern term for Great Plague; combination of bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic plagues; emerged in mid-14thcentury and spread quickly throughout overpopulatedone o cities; death rates from one third to one half of European populace; lead to increased wages and living standards as well as prosperous lower class because of shortage of labor
  8. Kubilai Khan
    1215 – 1294; grandson of Ghengis Khan and first emperor of China's Yuan Dynasty; ushered in period of cosmopolitanism that brought traders and other visitors to China from all over world; ruled first from city of Khan-balik (modern Beijing) and then Taidu; did better job of ruling over vast Chinese empire than one Mongol people
  9. Urban II
    r. 1088 – 1099; Gregorian-reformed pope; called for First Crusade at Council of Clermont in 1095 under pretense of helping Byzantine Empire from Seljuk Turks; wanted to reclaim Holy Lands and build up power of papacy by redirecting aristocratic ferocity at infidels; interested many nobles because was chance to garner fame, fortune, honor for family; offered to waive economic and spiritual debt if participated
  10. Drang nach Osten
    during High Middle Ages, slow but steady expansion of German settlers into Elbe and down Danube; boundary of HRE moved at expense of Slavic populations in Baltic area; brought Catholic and Orthodoxy Christianities in touch and in competition (one looks to pope, other to Patriarch of Constantinople); Christianization, Germanization, Europeanization of Slavic lands  rise of Christian militancy as European identity becomes defined by what it is NOT
  11. Salah al-Din Yusuf
    lived 1137 – 1193; brought about rise of unified Islamic state; defeated Crusader forces at Horn of Hattin in 1187, conquered Jerusalem; Islamic forces became eminent military power in Holy Lands  reason Richard Lionheart, Philip II Augustus, and Frederick Barbarossa launched Third Crusade in 1189
  12. Unam Sanctam
    Papal bull issued by Pope Boniface VIII in 1300; to gain salvation, must recognize superiority of papacy, secularly and ecclesiastically; had never been said needed to recognize Pope as leader to receive divine grace; denounced by Philip IV, who later embarrassed at Anagni in 1303 by abducting Boniface and beating up; died soon afterwards; went too far to gain power for papacy
  13. canon law
    religious law; law in High Middle Ages represented power, authority, income, respect; arranged into one comprehensive source in Decretum by Gratian in 1140 at University of Bologna; clarified, restored order, and removed contradiction from canon law; as strength of papacy builds in 13th century, Church becomes more dependent on trained bureaucrats to gain and use power
  14. St Roch
    plague saint; as pilgrim on way to Santiago de Compostela during 13th century, fell ill to plague; abandoned by all except dog who licked his wounds and healed him; often prayed to during plague epidemics of Late Middle Ages
  15. Philip II “Augustus”
    member of House of Capet and son of Louis VII, ruled from 1180 – 1223, from a young age; excellent admin. king who introduced baillis, who were loyal only to crown; established Paris as capital and most important city in France, erecting Notre-Dame and refining defensive walls; fought Crusade against Cathars; strengthened domain more than any of predecessors
  16. commercial revolution
    High Middle Ages; agricultural revolution contributed to commercial revolution; Vikings, Jews, Muslims, Byzantine merchants engaged in trade along great European rivers; by late 10th century, European commerce surges; growth in commerce = growth in urban centers; leads to local specialization of goods and wider array of goods through wider assortment of networks  guilds
  17. Hugh Capet
    elected king after folding of Carolingian dynasty; r. 987 – 996; very little territory, power when first elected; first King of France/Capetian king; following in Charlemagne’s footsteps, crowned new king before old king’s death  shows will of king being felt, less bickering for crown; started mastering and pacification of Ile de France, where before could be attacked just outside city walls; also brought additional territories under royal authority and authenticated royal claims to feudal principalities, which laid foundation for powerful monarchy in France
  18. Great Famine
    in early 14th century, mini “ice-age;” incessant rain and long, dreary winter lead to poor harvests  famine of 1315 – 1322; lived off of strange diet, cannibalism, eating animals like dogs, cats, horses; 10% of European populace died; was major contributing factor to Black Death
  19. Dominicans
    followers of St. Dominic (1170 – 1221); unlike Waldensians, who were very similar, were given legitimacy by papacy by Fourth Lateran Council in 1215; practiced strict individual poverty; very popular in Europe, esp. Mediterranean; preached against Cathars during Albigensian Crusade; intellectual leaders; tapped into popular piety of time to gain popularity
  20. Marco Polo
    1254 – 1324; merchant who traveled to China with father in 1271; served Kubilai Khan for twenty years; captured and taken prisoner on way back to Venice in 1295 and wrote “The Travels” along with romance writer Rusticello while imprisoned; though veracity of reports have been challenged in recent years, writings were very popular in Europe and had strong impact on European attitudes toward China
  21. Jan Hus
    popular preacher in Bohemia (modern-day Czech Republic); argued about apostolic poverty and translating Bible into vernacular; was condemned heretic; encouraged to come to share ideas at Council of Constance in 1415; promised safe passage by emperor; upon arrival, was immediately captured and burned at stake; death encouraged movement of Czech nationalism and anti-clerical behavior
  22. Avignon
    Avignon Papacy from 1309 – 1378; Clement V moved papacy from Rome to backyard of French kings for ~70 years after embarrassment of Boniface VIII by Philip IV and collapse of spiritual prestige of papacy; brought ecclesiastical head under sphere of secular authority; lead to Great Schism after Gregory IX tries to move papacy back to Rome; was the premiere crack in the structure of Church in Middle Ages
  23. flagellants
    hyper-religious individuals who used body as way to stave off Great Plague; engaged in bodily mortification using scourge; went from town to town and harangued people about end of days; believed sinful populace was what was causing plague; by 14th century, growth of movement alarmed Church and became less tolerant of flagellants, barring access from many cities
  24. Cluny
    first reformation of Christian practices; founded in 910 by William, Duke of Aquitaine; tried to make abbey subject only to papacy; increasingly ascetic practices  Elaboration of Benedictine Rule; became nucleus of reform monastery movement across Europe; created monastic order
  25. Moses Maimonides
    1135 – 1204, from Spain; known as “The Rabbi” as Aristotle was known as “The Philosopher;” synthesized writings of Aristotle by arguing there was no conflict between faith and reason in book, Guide for the Perplexed; use five senses to know what reality is; use senses to unpack inner workings of faith; one of greatest Torah scholars of Middle Ages
  26. Knights Templar
    became wealthy landowners in Europe because of Crusades, skilled fighting units; after Holy Land lost, lost much of support; persecuted by Philip “the Fair” of France who said were in cahoots with satanic forces; marginalized group following Crusades; Philip went against because he saw them as possible rival → rise of secular authorities ; by taking land of Knights, increased power of throne and destroyed Knights as possible threat
  27. interdict
    after Arnold of Brescia wrote against papacy and emperor in 1140s in Rome, region inflamed by rebellion; Pope Hadrian IV used most powerful tool and put entire region under excommunication; all masses and pilgrimages, which were very important to economy, came to halt; major economic damage, which undercut Arnold’s rebellion; pulverized ashes when burnt at stake so no remnants to encourage uprising; hostility between papacy and Roman citizens
  28. Martin Luther
    1483 – 1546; sent to University of Erfurt to study law but instead joined order of the Augustinian Hermits and embarked on course of theological and Biblical studies; went through religious crisis in early thirties which caused him to question theological bases of practices central to medieval Catholic church; began Protestant Reformation with work, “Ninety-Five Theses” in 1517; condemned by Church and refused to recant at Diet of the Worms; was intellectual leader of reform movement and greatest of Protestant reformer
  29. Christopher Columbus
    born in Genoa, Italy in 1451, died in 1506; conceived idea of reaching spice-rich Indies by sailing directly sailing directly west across Atlantic while involved in West African gold trade under Portuguese flag; set out on trip with three small ships in 1492 with royal backing; reached land on October 12, 1492 at Caribbean near Cuba rather than in Pacific near Japan; made four voyages to New World and rewarded title of Admiral of the Ocean Seas for discovering new continent
  30. Gregorian Reform
    Gregory VII (pope 1073 – 1085) and successors fought to remove lay influence from Church, papal selection (only Cardinals); followed in Leo IX’s footsteps; papacy gained control over hierarchy of ecclesiastical offices; banned lay investiture  conflict with Henry IV, who he later embarrassed at Canossa in 1077 after excommunicating Henry; built up power of pope by using papal legates as eyes and ears on ground and being peripatetic ; excommunicated Patriarch of Constantinople who excommunicated him in turn  schism between Church in east and west; eventually forced into exile by Henry
  31. William of Rubruck
    born between 1215 and 1230, death unknown; Franciscan friar who was sent by King Louis IX of France to Mongols; went to city of Karakorum in central Mongolia; completed written report of journey after return to Europe in 1255; report was one of most important reports on the Mongol Empire by a European in the Middle Ages
  32. Decretum
    written in 1140 at University of Bologna by Gratian; has central section with law and surrounding info on page is gloss with supplementary and contextual info; raised questions in logical sequence and resolved contradictions within canons; was authoritative text in ecclesiastical tribunals and study of canon law; shows rising bureaucracy in ecclesiastical world
Card Set
medieval history