1. 3 stages of prenatal development
    Germinal (first 2 weeks) embryonic (2 weeks to 2 months) and fetal stages (2 months to birth(
  2. Twin studies
    research indicates that most behavioral qualities are influenced jointly by heredity and environment, which play off of each other
  3. Phonemes
    basic sound units
  4. morphemes
    smallest units of meaning
  5. rules of syntax
    specify how words can be combined into sentences
  6. Language acquisition in animals
    Chimps are capable of some very basic language acquisition, but there is no comparison between the linguistic abilities of humans and other animals.
  7. Observational Learning
    an organism is conditioned by watching a model's conditioning
  8. Basic processes in observational learning
    Attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation
  9. Effects of Media violence
    violent tv shows, movies, and video games contribute to increased aggression among children and adults
  10. Reinforcement
    occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to emit that response
  11. Schedules of reinforcement
    intermittent schedules of reinforcement: fixed-ratio, variable ration, fixed interval, and variable interval schedules.
  12. Positive reinforcement
    occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
  13. Negative reinforcement
    occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of a conditioned stimulus
  14. Punishment
    involves conditioned consequences that lead to a decline in response strength
  15. Classical Conditioning
    a neutral stimulus can acquire the capacity to elicit a response originally elicited by another stimulus
  16. Extinction
    a conditioned response is weakened and extinguished when the CS is no longer paired with the U.S.
  17. Spontaneous recovery
    occurs and an extinguished response later reappears after a period of nonexposure to the CS.
  18. Generalization
    response to an object generalized to a variety of other objects that are similiar to the original object
  19. discrimination
    not responding to stimuli that resemble the original CS.
  20. Operant conditioning
    voluntary responses that are governed by their consequences
  21. explain what happens in high order conditioning
    when a conditioned stimulus acts as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
  22. Temperament
    refers to a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
  23. Heritability
    refers to the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
  24. Bronfenbrenner's ecological model
    • a series of nested environments
    • -microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem
  25. microsystem
    immediate environment with which a child directly interacts
  26. mesosystem
    the connections that exist among microsystems
  27. exosystems
    social settings a child is not a part of, but that still affect him/her
  28. macrosystem
    the general cultural context for all the other systems
  29. sexual selection
    changes in species are made not only by "survival of the fittest but also by active choices
  30. red queen hypothesis
    have to run as fast as you can in order to stay in the same place
  31. genome
    complete instructions for making an organism
  32. teratogen
    things that can harm the fetus. i.e. alcohol, smoking
  33. habituation
    a change/loss in the strength of a response due to repetition
  34. plasticity of neurotransmitters
    • amount of NT's made can be changed, amount of receptors can be changed
    • "up regulation"-increases receptors
    • "down regulation"-decreases receptors
  35. Learning at the neural level
    the process of making certain pathways work more readily than they did before
  36. Long term potentation
    increases the likelihood that a single neuron can cause an action potential
  37. discrimination learning
    does not require reinforcements or punishments, just experience
  38. language acquisition device
    basic idea is that the brain has evolved a structure to help us learn and extract the grammatical rules of language
  39. prosody
    "melody" of spoken language
  40. reflexes with a healthy newborn
    automatic responses that ensure it ability to breathe, find food, and withdraw from painful stimuli
  41. rooting
    touch cheek and baby turns head to suck
  42. moro
    drop baby and arms fling out and grab
  43. grasping
    touch palm, baby grabs
  44. babinski
    fingernail from heel to toe, baby splays toes outward
  45. Social referencing
    we look at others to learn about how we should act when we are unsure
  46. Jean piaget's 4 main stages of development
    sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal
  47. object permanence
    objects exist even when out of view
  48. centration
    underlying properties (such as mass, number, volume) remain the same despite changes
  49. conservation of number
    4 checkers on top and bottom, bottom checkers spread out, child says more checkers on the bottom
  50. conservation of amount
    same water in 2 glasses, one tall one short, child says more water in tall glass
  51. conservation of area
    1 chocolate split into 2, child says 2 pieces of chocolate is more
  52. egocentrism
    inability to take another person's view
  53. inability to conserve/irreversibility
    being able to only consider one dimension at a time
  54. Four patterns of identity formation
    foreclosure, moratorium, identity diffusion, and identity achievement
  55. Triune Brain
    brain stem, limbic system, cortex
  56. Brain stem
    regulates basic body functions
  57. limbic system
    emotion center
  58. cortex
    complex thought
  59. Four step process of advertisement
    build brand awareness, build brand preference, product purchase/use, build brand loyalty
  60. 5 roles emotion plays in how our minds work
    attention, memory, attitudes, motivation, behavior
  61. unconscious influence
    many things that influence us are not at a conscious level
  62. golden rule of influence
    the most effective influence is when you don't know it's effecting you
  63. four types of shortcuts
    authority principle, identification principle, contrast principle, humor
  64. authority principle
    follow authority principle
  65. identification principle
    talk/act like person we like
  66. contrast principle
    compare and contrast things we might not want to
  67. 3 ways to categorize disorders
    chronic high anxiety, phobic disorders, panic disorder
  68. dissociative amnesia
    sudden memory loss that is too extensive
  69. dissociative fugue
    lose sense of identity
  70. dissociative identity
    coexistence of two or more very different personalities
  71. 4 main types of psychotherapy
    psychoanalysis, behavior, humanistic, cognitive
  72. psychoanalysis assumptions
    psychological problems are often the result of repressed conflicts
  73. psychoanalysis goal
    bring these problems to the conscious mind where they can be examined and resolved
  74. humanistic therapies assumption
    people are on a journey of self-fulfillment, and problems are the result of current difficulties on that path
  75. humanistic therapies goals
    help clients explore their feelings and accept responsibility for their actions, thereby helping them become more self-fulfilled
  76. behavior therapies assumptions
    the problem behaviors are the problems, not the manifestation of some unacknowledged or unconscious conflict
  77. behavior therapies goal
    change the behavior, problem gone
  78. 3 major elements of systematic desensitization
    create an anxiety hierarchy from lowest to highest,learn a relaxation response, progressive association of each hierarchy item with relaxation
  79. cognitive therapies assumptions
    our patterns of thought can change how we feel and behave
  80. cognitive therapies goal
    change the thought patters change the feelings and behaviors
  81. Self-concealment scale
    people who tend to conceal negative info about themselves are more likely to suffer from depression and anxiety
Card Set
psych 101 final exam