What are the side effects of Antibiotics?
The most common side effects from antibiotics are Green/Gray stool, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting. Fungal infections of the mouth, digestive tract and vagina can also occur with antibiotics because they destroy the protective 'good' bacteria in the body (which help prevent overgrowth of any one organism), as well as the 'bad' ones, responsible for the infection being treated.
What is the normal range for a Urine Specific Gravity?
1.005 - 1.030
What is a Neurogenic Bladder?
Neurogenic bladder is a urinary problem in which the bladder does not empty properly due to a neurological condition. Common in diabetes; have trouble holding onto urine.
- Symptoms of overactive bladder:
- Having to urinate too often in small amounts
- Problems emptying all the urine from the bladder
What is the Gating Mechanism?
When the skin is stimulated, pain is believed to be controlled by closing the gating mechanism in the spinal cord. This decreases the number of pain impulses that reach the brain for perception.
What is Pain Tolerance?
The point in which a person is no longer willing to endure pain.
What is Pain Threshold?
The lowest intensity of a stimulus that causes the subject to recognize the pain.
What are the 4 stages of Pain Process?
What is Panic Anxiety?
- Causes the person to lose control and experience dread and terror
- Characterized by increased physical activity, distorted perception of events, loss of rational thought.
- Unable to learn, concentrates only on the present situation.
- This level nof anxiety can lead to exhaustion and death
- Difficulty communicating verbally, agitation, trembling, poor motor control, sensory changes, sweating, tachycardia, hyperventilation, dyspnea, palps, choking sensation, sensation of chest pain or pressure.
What is Severe Anxiety?
- Very narrow focus on specific detail, all behavior is geared towards getting relief.
- Impaired learning ability and easily distracted
- Manifested by difficulty communicating, increased motor activity, fearful facial expression, headache, nausea, dizziness, tachycardia, and hyperventilation.
What is Moderate Anxiety?
- Narrows a persons perceptual fields so that the focus is on immmediate concerns with inattention to other communications and details
- Manifested by a quavering voice, tremors, increased muscle tension, "butterflies in stomach", increased respirations and pulse.
What is Mild Anxiety?
- Anxiety present in day-to-day living
- Pre-exam anxiety can motivate a student to study
- Increases alertness and perceptual fields
- Motivates learning and growth
- May interfere with sleep but facilitates problem solving
- Manifested by restlessness and increased questioning
What is Fear?
- A feeling of dread
- A cognitive response to a known threat (ANXIETY is the EMOTIONAL response to that threat)
What is Exhaustion?
- The third stage of GAS
- Results when the adaptive mechanisms are exhausted
- Without defense against the stressor, the body may either rest and mobilize its defenses to return to normal, or reach total exhaustion and die.
What is Resistance?
- The second stage of GAS.
- The body now tries to adapt to the stressor
- Vitals, horomones, and energy production return to normal
- If the stress is managed or confined to a small area, the body regains homeostasis
- If damage to the body is too great (major damage; bleeding) adaptive mechanisms fail.
What is the Alarm Reaction?
- The first stage of GAS.
- Initiated when a person perceives a specific stressor and various defense mechanisms are activated
- Perception of the threat maybe conscious or unconscious
- ANS initiates the fight or flight response, preparing the body to either fight off the stressor or run away from it.
- Horomone levels increase = shock phase, characterized by increased energy, O2, CO, BP, and mental alertness.
- Countershock = reversal of body changes
What is GAS?
- Describes the bodies general response to stress, a concept essential in all areas of nursing.
- 3 Phases: Alarm Reaction, Resistance, Exhaustion
What are the 3 phases of the Inflammatory Response?
- 1. Bleeding-controlled by vasoconstriction-histamines are released and capillary permeability is increased, allowing increase of blood and WBC's to the area. WBC's remain to resist infection
- 2. Exudate is released by the wound
- 3. Damaged cells are repaired by regeneration or scar tissue.
What are the characteristics of Parkinsons Disease?
Tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability.
What is the Norton Scale?
- Predictor of Pressure Sore Risk
- A score < 14 indicates a high risk of pressure ulcer development.
What labs are in a CBC?
Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, RBC, WBC, Platelets
What are the 5 major functions of the Skeletal System?
- The skeleton gives shape and support to your body.
- Bones protect your internal organs. For example, ribs surround the heart and lungs, and the skull encloses the brain. Major muscles are attached to bone and help them move.
- Blood cells are formed in the center of many bones, in soft tissue called red marrow.
- Major quantities of calcium, and phosphorous compounds, are stored in the skeleton for later use. Calcium and phosphorus, make bones hard.
What is Fat Embolism Syndrome?
- A fat embolism is a type of embolism that is often (but not always) caused by physical trauma.
- Embolism begins rather slowly and attains a maximum in about 48 hours. Open fractures furnish less emboli than closed fractures. Long bones, pelvis and ribs furnish more emboli; sterner and clavicle furnish less.
- The principal clinical features of fat embolism syndrome are: Respiratory failure, Cerebral dysfunction and Petechiae
What is Compartment Syndrome?
- Compartment syndrome is the compression of nerves and blood vessels within an enclosed space. This leads to muscle and nerve damage and problems with blood flow.
- Swelling leading to compartment syndrome is associated with trauma such as from a car accident or crush injury, or surgery. Compartment syndrome may also occur if you wear a tight bandage or a cast that is too tight.
- Compartment syndrome is most common in the lower leg and forearm, although it can also occur in the hand, foot, thigh and upper arm.
What is a Lumbar Laminectomy?
Removal of most of the bony arch, or lamina, of a vertebra (Laminectomy is most often done when back pain fails to improve with more conservative medical treatment.)
What are Renal Calculi?
- A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. One or more stones can be in the kidney or ureter at the same time.
- The biggest risk factor for kidney stones is dehydration.
- Kidney stones may not produce symptoms until they begin to move down the tubes (ureters) through which urine empties into the bladder. When this happens, the stones can block the flow of urine out of the kidneys. This causes swelling of the kidney or kidneys, causing pain. The pain is usually severe.
- When the stone passes, the urine should be strained and the stone saved and tested to determine the type.
- Drink at least 6 - 8 glasses of water per day to produce a large amount of urine. Some people might need to get fluids through a vein (intravenous).
What is a SOAP Note?
subjective, objective, assessment, and plan
- Assessment---a quick summary of the patient with main symptoms/diagnosis including a differential diagnosis, a list of other possible diagnoses usually in order of most likely to least likely. When used in a Problem Oriented Medical Record, relevant problem numbers or headings are included as subheadings in the assessment.
- Plan ---This is what the health care provider will do to treat the patient's concerns. This should address each item of the differential diagnosis. A note of what was discussed or advised with the patient as well as timings for further review or follow-up may also be included.
What is a DAR note?
Data, Action, Response
What is Biofeedback?
- Biofeedback is a technique that trains people to improve their health by controlling certain bodily processes that normally happen involuntarily, such as heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and skin temperature.
- The three most commonly used forms of biofeedback therapy are:
- Electromyography (EMG), which measures muscle tension
- Thermal biofeedback, which measures skin temperature
- Neurofeedback or electroencephalography (EEG), which measures brain wave activity
What is a Ego-Defense Mechanism?
When the ego has a difficult time making both the id and the superego happy, it will employ one or more of these defenses: Denial, Displacement, Projection, Repression etc.
What is a Bucks (Russells) traction?
One of the most common orthopedic mechanisms by which pull is exerted on the lower extremity with a system of ropes, weights, and pulleys. Buck's traction, which may be unilateral or bilateral, is used to immobilize, position, and align the lower extremity in the treatment of contractures and diseases of the hip and knee. The mechanism commonly consists of a metal bar extending from a frame at the foot of the patient's bed, supporting traction weights connected by a rope passing through a pulley to a cast or a splint around the affected body structure.
What role does Vitamin K play in Surgery?
It is important for Blood Clotting.
Too much K can stop the heart; Ace inhibitors hold onto K.
What happens to RBC's and Serum when a pt is dehydrated?
- When dehydrated, the % of RBC's go up due to vasoconstriction with the absence of Serum.
- Decreased Serum occurs because the vascular walls are not coated as well, so RBC's can't flow as well.
What is Cheyne-Strokes breathing?
Greater rate and depth, followed by lessened rate and depth.
What is Kussmaul's Breathing?
Panting related to metabolic disturbance.
What is Orthopnea?
- Shortness of breath (dyspnea) which occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair.
- Pt breathes easier hunched over.
Where are Bronchial sounds best heard?
Over the trachea.
Where are Bronchovesicular sounds best heard?
Over the Bronchi
Where are Vesicular sounds best heard?
Over the Lung Fields.
What is Pulmonary Edema?
- Pink Sputum
- Blood in fluid in the lungs
- A lot of fluid comes out of the lungs
- Pressure in Thoracic Cavity
What happens to the BP when dehydrated?
- When dehydrated, the HCT goes up, and the BP goes up.
- Viscosity affects blood flow; an increased HCT will slow the flow and increase the BP.
What is Hypotension?
- Low blood pressure, or hypotension, occurs when blood pressure during and after each heartbeat is much lower than usual. This means the heart, brain, and other parts of the body do not get enough blood.
- Systolic BP is less than 90.
- Caused by dilation of arteries, blood loss, and inadequate pumping of the heart.
- Symptoms include: Pallor, skin mottling, cool and clammy skin, confusion, increased BP, decreased Urine Output
What is Aphasic?
- Can't process the words
- Language Barriers
- Inability to read
What is RACE?
Rescue, Activate the Alarm, Confine the Fire, Extinguish
What is Erythema?
Redness of the skin, congestion, dilation of cutaneous blood vessels
What is Cyanosis?
Blue/grayish skin; inadequate O2
What is Jaundice?
- Yellow Skin
- Caused by billirubin in the blood
- Liver or gallbladder disease
- Identify in the sclera of eyes
What is a positive Homan's Sign?
Stretch toes to the ceiling; if they get a sharp pain there is a possible clot---alert the doc---no massage.
How do you promote appetite?
- Wash hands, face
- Brush Teeth
What are the 3 phases of the Helping Relationship?
Orientation, Working, Termination
Why would a patient have a bright red tongue?
Often seen in pts with deficiencies in iron, vitamin B12, or niacin.