social final

  1. receiving help (urban vs non urban)
    • urban
    • more people = less responsibility on one person
    • assume someone else will do it
    • nonurban
    • more likely to get help
  2. mental steps people go through when witnessing emergency
    • 1.notice the victim or emergency situation
    • 2.interpret the situation as an emergency
    • 3.assume responsibility to help
    • 4.know to help
    • 5.decide to intervene
  3. If you to get others to help you...
    • reduce ambiguity ex I think I'm having a heart attack
    • tell bystander what you need ex call police
    • reduce diffusion of responsibility ex you in red help me
  4. Darley and Latane Smoke Filled Room Study
    • had people fill out survey either alone, with two others, or with two confederates
    • experimenter is gone and secretary is in the next room
    • smoke comes out of the vents
    • Results
    • if alone, 75% reported
    • group of 3, 38% reported
    • group of 3 with two confederates, 10% reported
    • pluralistic ignorance occurred
  5. Darley and Batson Jerusalem to Jericho Study
    • future ministers were told to give a speech
    • condition 1 was told they were late
    • condition 2 was told they were on time
    • on the way to give the speech they saw a person coughing/laying down
    • over half of condition 2 people stopped and helped
    • only 10% of condition 1 helped
  6. Field Experiment
    experiments done in the real world
  7. Pluralistic Ignorance
    look to others to interpret the situation
  8. Diffusion of Responsibility
    bystanders assume someone else already called the police/ someone else will help
  9. universal egoism vs altruism
    • is helping ever truly unselfish?
    • altruism is when you have unselfish concern for others welfare
    • egoism is when you help someone to make yourself look better
  10. Assumptions about the existence of unselfish altruism
    • the predominant assumption is that everything humans do is to benefit themselves (universal egoism)
    • Now, true altruism does exist and is part of human nature
  11. Social Norms Explanation for Helping
    • we learn to help
    • we learn to feel responsible for the welfare of others
  12. Social Evolution explanation for Helping
    • altruism is adaptive
    • promotes survival and reproduction
    • unselfishness is just as natural as selfishness
  13. Reciprocity in Helping
    • helping in order to receive future help
    • no specific or immediate benefits are expected
    • if large imbalance, helper may quit helping because they feel dissatisfied
    • ex- watching neighbors dog when they travel
  14. Negative State Relief
    • someone's in a negative state because they saw someone harmed or harmed someone
    • they are more likely to help and relieve their state by receiving praise for what they did
  15. Aversive Arousal Reduction Explanation
    • evoked by seeing another in need
    • escape distressing situation
    • escape discrepant situation
    • escape unjust situation
    • its upsetting to see someone else suffer and people prefer not to be upset
    • to reduce you can help or look away
    • away
    • 2.cognitive inconsistency/motivation so help or change perception
    • or derogate/blame victim if victim is unworthy, suffering is more just/less upsetting
  16. Empathy
    • more empathy = more likely to help
    • use of empathy induced altruism has improved racial attitudes, as well as attitudes toward people with AIDS, homeless people, and even convicted murderers and drug dealers
  17. altruism
    • helping others not necessarily in an emergency
    • unselfish concern for the welfare of others
  18. egoism/universal egoism
    the belief that helping is to benefit ourselves
  19. kin altruism
    • more likely to sacrifice to help kin
    • social evolution theories motive is perpetuating own genes
    • closer relatives share more genes
    • you are your genes?
  20. BJW
    believe that the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
  21. Aversive Arousal
    its upsetting to see someone in need so you try to get rid of your feeling
  22. Personal Distress / Vicarious Distress
    if someone else is hurt, you feel their pain
  23. empathy
    feeling what someone else is feeling
  24. universalism values in intergroup altruism
    • stronger = more likely to engage in intergroup altruism
    • feel more responsible for the fate of all fellow human beings
    • see more similarities with others
    • feel own fate linked to others fate
  25. Approach to religious beliefs with intergroup altruism
    view religious teachings as emphasizing common humanity of all people = more likely to be in intergroup altruism
  26. self efficacy
    • higher self efficacy = intergroup altruism
    • believe their own actions can make a difference
    • feel they shape events in general and have control over their own lives
  27. emotional empathy
    • if feel wide range emotional empathy, more intergroup altruism
    • general personality trait developed in childhood
  28. extensitivity vs constrictedness
    higher in extensitivity and lower in constrictedness - more intergroup altruism
  29. parenting style in childhood
    • more intergroup altruism if had parents who used warm, authoritative style, promotes empathy / non prejudice
    • unlikely to have parents who emphasized obedience, used physical punishments
    • likely to have parents who emphasized values apply to all
  30. Rescuers
    • important to study rescuers because this informs us that individuals are not entirely powerless
    • we want to understand their power to resist the forces around them
  31. intergroup altruism
    • helping others in an outgroup
    • often at great cost to onself
  32. rescuers
    people who help members of outgroup
  33. nonrescuers
    actives: people who were either members of resistance groups / helped jews / both but had no external evidence identified by self reports

    bystanders: said they did nothing out of the ordinary during the war to help others or resist nazis
  34. self efficacy
    helping yourself
  35. authoritarian parenting style
    • more likely to produce non rescuer
    • emphasize complete obedience
    • use frequent physical punishments or discipline with no reasoning
  36. authoritative parenting style
    • warm explanations
    • produces rescuers and intergroup altruism
  37. effects of praise on liking
    • in general like the person who praises us
    • if praise is too lavish or seems unwarranted, its not liked
  38. effects of giving and receiving favors on liking
    • we like people who do us favors
    • favors can be considered rewards and wetend to like people who provide us with this kind of reward
    • we don't like people who's favors have strings attached
    • if you give favor you will make yourself like them because you did work
  39. Perceived competence affects liking
    • the most competent is not most liked because you feel uncomfortable by them
    • if they make mistake, they seem more human and are liked more
    • JFK
  40. agreement and similarity on liking
    • like people that agree and think similarly on important issues
    • social confirmation that you are right
  41. insecurity on liking
    lower self esteem makes you like the person who likes you more
  42. Initiating Discussion of a Problem
    • dissatisfied couples:
    • accusation
    • you statement

    • Satisfied couples:
    • I statement
    • statement of feelings
  43. When are problems brought up?
    • Dissatisfied:
    • after delay
    • more frustrated
    • anger feelings fester
    • harder to solve

    • Satisfied:
    • soon after it occurs
    • next good time for discussion
    • fix right away
  44. Number of Problems Discussed at a Time
    • dissatisfied:
    • arguments focused on many topics
    • list of post wrongs
    • cross complaining
    • kitchen sinking

    • satisfied:
    • focused on one topic at a time
  45. Attributions for Partners Behavior
    • dissatisfied:
    • positive behavior = situation
    • negative behavior=disposition
    • negative spiral =caused by dissatisfaction
    • leads to more dissatisfaction

    • satisfied:
    • positive behavior= disposition
    • negative behavior =situation
    • positive spiral = caused my satisfaction
    • leads to more satisfaction
  46. proposed solutions to a problem / how conflict ends
    • dissatisfied:
    • end without resolution
    • vague resolution

    • satisfied:
    • concrete specific resolution
  47. Pratfall Effect
    although a high degree of competence does make us appear more attractive, some evidence of fallibility increases our attractiveness still further
  48. Authenticity
    being true to self and others
  49. Straight Talk
    a persons clear statement of his or her feelings or concerns without accusing, blaming, judging, or ridiculing
  50. You statement
    • accusations that put blame on other
    • ineffective
  51. Kitchen Sinking
    • piling it all on
    • arguing about everything but the actual issue
  52. Cross Complaining
    come back with accusation or different problem that is unrelated to confrontation
  53. Self Summarizing
    • a person keeps summarizing what he or she says
    • not communicative
    • repititious, ignores the other person
Card Set
social final
social final