Globals: IR

  1. Industrial Revolution
    • time period when men were replaced with machines
    • began in mid 1700s in Great Britain
  2. Enclosure
    large fields enslosed by fences or hedges
  3. crop rotation
    • planting different plants at different times of the year
    • one year plant something that removes nutrients - then next year plant something that restores nutrients
  4. Industrialization
    process of developing machine production of goods
  5. Factors of Production
    • resources needed to produce goods and services that the IR required
    • land labor and wealth
  6. Entrepreneur
    person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risk of business
  7. mon pali
    peanuts :D
  8. Urbanization
    city building and the movement of people to cities
  9. Middle Class
    a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
  10. Working conditions were affected
    • industry created many new jobs
    • factories were dirty, unsafe, and dangerous
    • factory bosses were mean to workers
    • LONG TERM EFFECT: workers won higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions
  11. Social classes were affected
    • Factory workers were overworked and underpaid
    • skilled workers rose to lower middle class, and factory owners formed upper middle class
    • Upper class dislike those in middle class that became wealthier than them
    • LONG TERM EFFECT: standard of living generally rose
  12. Size of cities were affected
    • factories brought job seekers to cities
    • urban areas multiplied in size
    • many cities specialized in certain industries
    • LONG TERM EFFECT: suburbs grew as people fled crowded cities
  13. Living conditions were affected
    • cities lacked sanitary codes and building controls
    • Housing, water, and social services were scarce
    • Epidemics swept through cities
    • LONG TERM EFFECT: Housing, diet, and clothing improved
  14. how and why did the industrial revolution begin in Britain?
    • small place
    • ambitious people
    • had lots of natural resources
    • had expanding economy
    • had business men that were willing to invest in the creations of inventions
  15. Why did textile industry develop first?
    • due to popultaion BOOM due to agriculture industrialization the demand for clothes increased
    • To provide enough clothes, inventions needed to be made that allowed cheap mass production of clothing
  16. How did industrialization spread to America?
    • They had same natural resouces which allowed easy industrialization
    • English worker Samuel Slater emigrated to US with copy of textile machines and built a spinning machine
  17. Stocks
    • certain right of ownership
    • people that bought stocks owned part of the business
  18. Corporations
    business owned by stockholders who share the profits but are not responsible for debts
  19. What were impacts of Industrialization world-wide?
    • increased competition between industrialized nations
    • increased poverty in less developed nations
    • wealthy nations took resources from poor nations
    • brought imperialism: extending one country's rule over many other lands making the already wealthy country more powerful
  20. Laissez Faire
    • letting owners of industries set working conditions without interference
    • believe that nations grow wealthy by setting heavy tariffs on foreign goods
    • believe that government regulations interfere with wealth and production
    • believe that free trade would help economy prosper
  21. Adam Smith
    • defended idea of free economy and made 3 laws
    • Law of self interest: people work for their own good
    • Law of competition: competition forces people to make better products
    • Law of supply and demand: enough goods made at lowest price to meet demand in a market economy
  22. Capitalism
    • economic system in which factors of production are privately owned and money is inested in business ventures to make profit
    • it was branched off beliefs of Laissez Faire
  23. Utilitarianism
    • people should judge ideas, institutions, and actions, on basis of its usefulness
    • belief that government should try to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people
  24. Bourgeoisie
    • 'haves'
    • employers
    • controlled means of producing goods
  25. Proletariat
    • 'have nots'
    • workers
    • performed labor under tolerable conditions
  26. Socialism
    • factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the well-fare of all
    • it grew out of Capitalism along with belief in progress and concern of social justice
    • believed that if government rook control of industries it would promote equality and it would end poverty
  27. Marxism
    • introduced by Karl Marx
    • radical form of socialism
    • believed that IR enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor
    • believed that capitalism will wither due to revolts of large proletariat population
  28. Communism
    • complete socialism in which all means of production would be owned by the people
    • no such thing as private property
    • everything is shared equally
    • Led to reform movements
  29. Dehuminization
    • stripping human qualities from men creating them into robots or animals
    • This prevents uniqueness
  30. Human Environment
    the environment surrounding us that we live in and have to deal with (work, nature, other people)
  31. Social Dislocation
    the act of disrupting an established order so that it fails to continue
Card Set
Globals: IR
globals key terms