Cardio disease

  1. What percentage of deaths are CD responsible for
  2. What are the 5 classifications of CD
    • Heart murmurs
    • Arrythmias
    • Valvular heart disease
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Stroke
  3. What are some risk factors associated with CD
    • Family HX
    • Increasing age
    • Type I Diabetes
    • High cholesterol
    • Obesity
    • Tobacco use 4x's @ 2packs/day
  4. What is a sinus rhythm
    Normal heart sounds
  5. What are the two types of murmurs
    • Functional (Innocent)
    • Pathological (Organic)
  6. Define functional murmur
    • Bloof flowing throught the heart has increased turbulence
    • No pathology
  7. Patholigic (Organic) murmur
    • Can be congenital or acquired
    • Result of cardiac valvular disease or problems in electrical conduction
  8. Pathologic murmurs associated with valvular disease may require what
    Antibiotics prior to dental procedures
  9. What are some examples of congenital murmurs
    • Osteogenesis imperfecta
    • Elhers-Danios Syndrome
    • Marfan syndrome
  10. What are some examples of acquired murmurs
    • Rheumatic heart disease
    • Syphillis
    • Degenerative valvular disease
  11. What are 4 examples of degenerative valvular disorder
    • Senile calcific aortic stenosis
    • Mitral valve prolapse
    • Drug induced
    • Radiation
  12. What is rheumatic heart disease caused by
    A streptococcal pharyngitis which causes an autoimmune reaction that can damage the heart valves (mitral)
  13. What is senile aortic stenosis
    As some people age the aortic valve may undergo a calcification process
  14. What is an arrythmia
    A disturbance of the normal cardiac rhythm, rate or conduction through the cardiac tissues
  15. What is tachycardia
    • Abnormally rapid heart rate
    • Over 100 beats/minute
  16. What is bradycardia
    • A slow heart rate
    • Less then 60 beats/minute
  17. What condition can cause low Bp
  18. What is the SA node
    a small mass of tissue with characteristics of both muscle and nerve tissue
  19. Where is the SA node located
    In the right atrium
  20. What does the SA node do
    It regulates the contraction of the atria's prior to the contraction of the ventricles
  21. What are the 3 types of Bradycardias
    • Sinus bradycardia
    • Sinoarterial heart block
    • Atrioventricular heart block
  22. What are the 5 types of Tachycardias
    • Sinus tachycardia
    • Atrial tachycardia
    • Atrial flutter
    • Atrial fibrilation
    • Ventricular tachycardia
  23. What are the 2 types of cardiac arrest
    • Ventricular fibrillation
    • Ventricular asytole
  24. What are the 6 etiologies of cardiac arrhythmias
    • Carediovascular disease
    • Pulmonary disorder (Pneumonia, COPD)
    • Autoimmune disorder (Lupus)
    • Systemic disease (Thyroid disease)
    • Drugs with adverse side effects (caocaine)
    • Electrolyte imbalance (Potassium:Bulimia)
  25. What are the clinical manifestation of tachycardia
    • Palpatation
    • Chest pain
    • Syncope
  26. What are the clinical manifestations of bradycardia
    • Fatigue
    • Dizziness
    • Syncope
  27. What is the most common kind of cardiac arrythmia
    Atrial fibrillation
  28. What is atrial fibrillation
    • A common arrythmia characterized by a very high and rapid rate of 400-650 beats/minute
    • The most common cause of stroke in patients over 70
  29. What is the chemistry behind atrial fibrillation
    • electrical impulses are replaced by disorganized electrical impulses leading to irregular conduction to the ventricles
    • Cause decrease in cardiac output
  30. What are some clinical symptoms of A fib
    • Shortness of breath upon exertion
    • Dizziness
    • Syncope
    • Fatigue
  31. Who is cardiac ablation surgery mostly done on
  32. Why do we want cardiac patients on a pre porcedural rinse
    To reduce bacteremia
  33. What is considered a short dental appointment
    30-45 minutes
  34. When are appointments scheduled
    Late AM
  35. What is the recommendation for use of local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors
    2 carpules of 1/100,000 lidocaine w/epi
  36. What are the 3 etioliges of valvular heart disease
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Congenital abnormalites
    • Bacterial endocarditis
  37. What is stenosis
    an incomplete opening of the heart valve
  38. What is regurgitation
    an incomplete closure which causes a back flow of blood through the valve
  39. what is the most common heart valve abnormality
    mitral valve prolapse
  40. How is mitral valve prolapse confirmed
    with an echocardiogram
  41. what two medication are given to patients with MVP
    Beta blockers & CCB
  42. What % of ppl with rheumatic fever develop rheumatic heart disease
  43. What is coronary heart disease
    a group of diseases which affect the heart tissue due to a decreased or inadequate blood supply
  44. What is arteriosclerosis
    a thickening n loss of elasticity of the walls of the coronary arteries
  45. What is atherosclerosis
    Plaque formation
  46. What etiology of coronary heart disease has a oral systemic condition
  47. What are the 6 etiologies of coronary heart disease
    • arteriosclerosis
    • atherosclerosis
    • Congential abnormalities
    • Infection
    • Autoimmune disease:Lupus
    • Coronary embolism:blood clot
  48. What are the 3 types of coronary heart disease
    • Angina pectoris
    • Myocardial infarction
    • Congestive heart failure
  49. What is the #1 antianginal drug
    Long acting nitrates (vasodilator)
  50. What 4 factors may precipitate an anginal attack
    • Physical activity
    • Emotional stress
    • Large meals (parasympathetic response)
    • Extreme temperature changes
  51. What are some clinical symptoms of an anginal attack
    • Burning squeezing or crushing tightness in the chest
    • Pain radiates from the heart to shoulder and down left arm
  52. What is the onset and duration of Amyl Nitrate
    • 0.5 minutes
    • 3-5 minutes
  53. What is the onset and duration of sublingual nitroglycerin
    • 1-3 minutes
    • 30-60 minutes
  54. What is the onset and duration of translingual nitroglycerin
    • 2 minutes
    • 30-60 minutes
  55. What is the onset and duration of transmucosal nitroglycerin
    • 1-2 minutes
    • 180-300 minutes
  56. What is the onset and duration of sublingual isosorbide dinitrite
    • 2-5 minutes
    • 60-180 minutes
  57. What is the onset and duration of sublingual/chewable erythrityl tetranitrate
    • 5 minutes
    • 180 minutes
  58. What is the recommended appointment time for an angina patient
    • Late AM
    • Early PM
  59. For stable angina patients taking beta blockers what vasoconstrictor can be used
  60. If inhalant 0.3 ml amyl nitrate is effective how soon should it start working
    20-30 seconds
  61. Vitals should be taken _____ on mycordial infarction patients
    before and after
  62. How long do we wait to call EMS if a patient has a previous history of angina
    15-20 minutes
  63. What are some signs of a MI
    • Pain which is intense
    • Anxiety
    • Irritability
    • Nausea
    • Sweating
  64. What are the drug catergories prescribed to patients that have had a MI
    • Antiplatelet
    • Anticoagulant
    • Antihypertensive/Diuretic
    • Beta-Adrenergic blocker
    • Statins
  65. For patients taking Statins, CCB and Anti-coagulants what 3 antifungal medication should be avoided
    • Itraconazole
    • Ketoconazole
    • Miconazole
  66. What statin can be used with cardiac patients
  67. For patients taking Statin and anti-coagulants what 3 antibiotics shouls be avoided
    • Erythromycin
    • Claithromycin
    • Azithromycin (Zithromax)
  68. To avoid using epi impregnated cords during crown and bride procedures what are the two alternatives
    • Visine
    • Afrin
  69. If a MI patient does not respond to nitrolycerin what can we given
    325mg of aspirin
  70. What % of nitrous oxide can be administered
    • 35% nitrous
    • 65% oxygen
  71. What side of the heart is failing with peripheral edema
    Right side
  72. What are the 4 categories of drugs of the managment of CHF
    • Diuretic
    • Nitrate
    • CCB
    • Cardiac glycoside (Digoxin)
  73. What is the most common drug prescribed for the treatment of CHF
  74. What antibiotics should be avoided with CHF patients taking digoxin
    • Erythromycin
    • tetracycline
  75. What are the three common oral effects of Cardiovascular drugs
    • Xerosotomia
    • Gingival overgrowth
    • Taste disturbance
  76. How many cases of infective endocarditis are in the US a year and what is the mortality rate
    15,000 40% mortality rate
  77. What people are at high risk to get infective endocarditis
    • IV drug abuse
    • Patients with prosthetic valves
    • Previous HX
    • Cardiac valve replacement surgery
  78. What is the most common type of infective endocarditis
    Acute via staphylococci
  79. Which kind of IE is slow onset
  80. What are some clinical signs of IE
    • Fever
    • blood culture
    • Audbile heart murmur
  81. What is the percentage of bacteremia with manuel tb
  82. What is the percentage of bacteremia with use of toothpicks
  83. What is the percentage of bacteremia with use of oral irrigator
  84. What is the percentage of bacteremia with chewing food
Card Set
Cardio disease
Cardio disease