Neurotransmitter that regulates aggression. Found in Raph Nuclei of brain stem.
-decrease in reuptake induces aggression in rodents housed together
-PCP blocks serotonin synthesis
Vervet monkeys were injected with drugs that either increased or decreased serotonergic activity. These experiments showed which of the following about the relationship between serotonin and aggression?
A) More aggression is associated with less serotonergic activity
Still visual learning, but don't understand language
Memories range from stated facts to ingrained motor patterns (examples of both)
Increased ability to learn something by breaking it down into pieces. In music, learn a phrase/bar at a time.
*An example of short term memory
- take small bits and link together OR take large piece of music and associate with something else (ex. can't get song out of head)
More in frontal and temporal lobe
1. Broca's area- left temporal lobe. Damage= expressive aphasia (can understand language but can't speak it)
2. Wernicke's area- next to Broca's area in frontal temporal lobe. Damage= receptive aphasia (unable to understand language)
Expressive Aphasia vs Receptive Aphasia
Expressive aphasia- can understand language but can't speak it
Receptive aphasia- unable to understand language
*just because can't speak or understand, can still take in music and play it back
lesion between Broca's area & Wernicke's area. Person is told something, they understand it, but can't repeat it back.
*can converse regularly, just can't repeat back
1. 25% increase in auditory nerve cells (can process complex tones)
2. Enlarged cerebellums which affect precise timing and accuracy of motor commands (play right note at right time)
3. Enhanced or enlarged Wernicke's area. Gives "perfect pitch"
Music can combine thalamus, hypothalamus, and amygdala?
Amygdala is not affected by music. Other 2 are
1. Why are lower motor neruons called the "final common pathway" for behavioral control?
A. they are the output of the motor system
Which is the first step in the contraction phase of the excitation-contraction coupling?
B. calcium binds to troponin
Why does neuromuscular transmission fail in myasthenia gravis?
B. autoantibodies interfere with the function of nicotinic ACh receptors at the neuromuscular junction
What type of motor neurons ensures that the spindle continues to provide information about muscle length during muscle contraction?
D. gamma motor neurons
Which reflex prevents you from falling when you suddenly lift your foot off the ground in response to pain?
B. crossed-extensor reflex
Which of the following describes the function and loction of the golgi tendon organs?
A. monitor muscle tension, situated in series with muscle fibers
What is recipricol inhibition?
A. the contraction of one set of muscles is accompanied by the relaxation of the antagonist muscles
What are central pattern generators?
C. the motor units of a given muscle
Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase is involved in which function(s)?
A. the removal of superoxide anion (ROS) in the cell
Familial ALS, as opposed to sporadic ALS, is related to which major factor?
What is the basis of X-linked disorders?
B. defect in the single X chromosome in males
At what point in development is gender determined?
During what developmental period are the gonads undifferentiated?
B. the first 6 weeks of gestation
Which of the following is a caveat about sexual dimorphisms of cognition in humans?
B. huge variation results from differences among individuals rather than being gender-specific
Which of the following DNA manipulations has been used to change the gender of a mouse?
A. incorporating an SRY gene
Steroid hormones have both organizational and activational effects. Which is an example of the organizational effect of steroid hormones?
B. Wolffian duct develops into the male reproductive organs
The testes produce andogens, which trigger the masculinization of the nervous system early in development by which of the following mechanisms?
A. regulating the expression of a variety of sex-related genes
Female concentrations of testosterone are roughly 10% of those found in males (T/F)
Steroid hormones are fatty and can easily pass through the cell membranes and bind to receptors within the cytoplasm, giving them direct access to the nucleus and gene expression (T/F)
Testosterone is produced only in the testes (T/F)
What is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
a. emotional experience is a response to physiological changes in the body
b. emotional experience can be independent of emotional expression
b. emotional experience can be independent of emotional expression
What is the most common symptom of amygdala lesions in humans?
B. Inability to recognize the facial expression of fear
Which of the following statements reflect the argument against a discrete emotion system?
A. solid evidence indicates that some structures involved in emotion are also involved in other functions
Which of the following is strong evidence linking the amygdala with fear?
C. bilateral amygdalectomy profoundly reduces fear and aggression
In the proposed neural circuit for learned fear, the state of the ANS is altered by what neural connection?
B. efferents from the central nucleus of the amygdala project to they hypothalamus
Electrical stimulation of the amygdala elicits what response in humans?
B. increased anxiety and fear
The proposed circuit of learned fear suggest that the autonomic response to a fearful stimulus is mediated by the hypothalamus (T/F)
The brain areas that are activated by listening to music are the same areas in the brain involved with:
D. all of the above
Listening to music recruits neural mechanisms similar to those associated with fear (T/F)
Which of the following statements correctly reflects the idea of memory consolidation?
C. memory consolidation converts short term memories or sensory information into long term memory
A patient with brain trauma cannot remember events prior to the trauma. Which amnesia does this sympton indicate?
A. retrograde amnesia
Karl Lashley studied the effects of various sized cortical lesions on maze performance in rats. He concluded that the memory deficits were correlated with the size of the lesions not the location, and that all cortical areas contribute equally to learning and memory. What is the current interpretation of these experiments?
D. All cortical areas do not contribute equally to memory, but memories are widely distributed
What are hippocampel place cells?
A. neurons that fire when the animal is in a specific location
Which of the following describes procedural learning?
C. a motor response (procedure) in reaction to a sensory input
Which of the following represents Marr-Albus theory of motor learning?
a. input form the mossy fibers relaying information from the pons determines plasticity of the Purkinje cell connections
b. the parallel fiber synapse on the Purkinje cell dendrite is plastic if it is active at the same time as climbing fiber input to the Purkinje cell
b. the parallel fiber synapse on the Purkinje cell dendrite is plastic
if it is active at the same time as climbing fiber input to the
LTP and LTD in CA1 of the hippocampus may reflect the bidirectional regulation of which two processes?
C. phosphorylation and the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors