1. What is the core of Latin America?
    The Latin or Roman heritage can be seen as the core of the cultural entity. The physical core is from Mexico at the north southward across the continental mainland to southern most South America
  2. What are the Antilles?
    • Greater Antilles-cuba, hispanoila,jamaica,puerto rico.
    • Lesser Antilles- Hundreds of timy islands, islets, and coves primarily found alon the earstern rim of the caribbean.
  3. What are Latin America's fringes?
    Southwestern border region of the U.S. the caribbean realm- Belize, eastern most rimlands of Central America, Northern coastal plains of Guyana, suriname, and Guiana.
  4. Through what countries does the Amazon river flow?
  5. What direction does the Amazon flow
  6. Where and what are the Pampas?
    It is an alluvial plain with deposits of soil particles and fine grained. They are found in Argentina, South East part of South America.
  7. What is the ring of fire and what is its relevance in Latin America?
    A series of geologically young and extremely active volcanoes. It is right in Latin America and causes them many natural disasters.
  8. What is Tierra Del Fuego?
    Land of Fire, which protrudes into the icy waters of Anartica.
  9. Where is Lake Titicaca and what is its geographic and cultural/historical importance?
    In the Northern Altiplano. Inca thought it was the center of the universe. South America's largest fresh water lake.
  10. Through what countries do the Andes pass?
    Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, peru, ecuador, columbia, venezuela.
  11. What are some of the characteristics of the Western Highland Peoples civilizations?
    Hunters and gatherers, low material, and social achievement, very advanced
  12. What are some general differences between the Eastern lowland peoples and the Western highland peoples?
    Low population densities, modest levels of indigenious social organization and material achievement.
  13. Describe the conditions of the Middle Passage
    There was overcrowding, trauma,appalling sanitation, disease, and contaminated food and water. Many died.
  14. Name some forces of slave resistance.
    • Passive resistance-poetry and song
    • Violence and attempted escape.
  15. Explain the origins/characteristics of the caste system in Latin America
    Mestizos-European and American Indian decent, Mulattos-White and Black mixed, Zambos- Black and Indian mixed
  16. Comment on the use of Ud. and tu with respect to race
    The richer people call the poorer people tu, while the poorer people are still expected to answer with Ud. Ud. is more formal while tu is friendlier. it's a way that the rich can look down on the poor.
  17. What is machismo from a U.S. perspective?
    Chasing and conquering women
  18. What are other aspects of machismo
    men with self confidence, risk taker, incontrol of himself and others, gambling, bragger, heavy drinker
  19. What is marianismo?
    From mother mary who is the mother/virgin model that women need to follow.
  20. What is personalismo?
    Networking, having connections, and a sphere of influence over others, certain phrases associated with this.
  21. What is the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and land ownership?
    The rich people own most of the land, which makes them richer and deprives the poor of the chance to move up ex: Brazil 3% of the pop. owns 81% of the land
  22. What % of the world's street children live in Latin America
  23. Why is it hard to determine how many street children there are?
    There is no clear definition of street children and they are hard to keep track of.
  24. In what economic sector do most women work
    informal economic sector- no paper trail, no tax roll, no labor laws
  25. What factors contribute to the feminization of poverty?
    From rurla to urban environment, working in the informal economic sectors.
  26. What is the double day work load
    having to work outside the home and then coming home to a "2nd" job which is cleaning the house, taking care of the kids etc.
  27. Describe the Dual Education System
    The elites send their children to expensive private schools, while the poor are forced to attend poorly funded private schools which has led to poor literacy rates.
  28. In terms of religion what did the indegenous peoples of the America have in common?
    polytheistic, making conquered tribes believe in their gods.
  29. What was Royal Patronage? What were its consequences?
    It conceded to the Crown more authority within the church. The church came to be viewed as an arm of imperial conquest and administration and the clergy came to be seen as civil as well as ecclesiastical officers whose actions were frequently based on political rather than ethical considerations. No seperation of church and state.
  30. Explain the policy of missionary accommodation and tolerance
    it indicated that whatever was good or indifferent in the indegenious culture of a convert people should be accepted by the church so long as it was not expressly forbidden in the bible.
  31. Explain religious syncretism and its origins in latin America
    the mixing of the indegenious religion and the catholicism. began with the europeans endeavoring to promote the mids of the natices an association between the indian and catholic gods.
  32. Explain the story of the Virgin de Guadalupe
    The virgin mary appeared to Juan as the virgin of Guadalupe and asked him to build a temple in her honor but the clergy said no without physical evidence so then the virgin appeared to him again and gave him the evidence he needed to show the bishop
  33. What are some aspects of Mediterranean Catholicism in Latin America?
    Lower level of attendance of mass, low level of sacramental participation, high level fo anticlericalism, focus on the cult of saints.
  34. What is voodoo?
    it means god or spirit, and is a form of African Folk Catholicism
  35. What is Santeria?
    Means the worship of the saints, focuses on the veneration of the images of saints, the believer thinks that the images are really representations of ancient Yoruban gods.
  36. What is Candomble?
    The leading form of african folk catholicism.
  37. What was the Alliance for progress?
    A large bilateral government-to-government grant given to Latin America by the U.S.
  38. What was the lost decade
    In the 1980s when the individual and family living levels regressed rather and progressed in most Latin American anc the Caribbean countries
  39. What was the found decade
    in the 1990s
  40. What is privatization
    debt for debt swaps
  41. What is NAFTA
    the north american federal trade agreement between mexico canada and the US
  42. According to the author whats the best measure of overall human health
    the realization of the access to adequate levels of clean water food and health care, and life expectancy
  43. How does the life expectancy of Latin America compare to the rest of the world
    it is above average but not by much
  44. What are some criticisms of ORT
    it places greater emphasis on short term treatment rather than long term prevention
  45. what % of women in Latin america breastfeed the babies?
  46. What is Auto medication
    The spanish term for self medication
  47. What was the goal of Vatican 2 and what were its consequences?
    modernize the church for cold war, nuclear threat, atheism, global poverty, and its consequences were stronger commitment to democract, justice, and human rights.
  48. Mayan knowledge
    calendar and observatory
  49. flower wars
    purpose was to get a ceaseless supply of prisoners alive to use as human sacrifices.
  50. Quetzalcoatl
    giver of life giver of corn protector gentle god of creation and peace fled with the promise to return
  51. Marina/Malintzin/Malinche
    Slave choosen by cortez to be a lover and interpreter
  52. Moctezuma
    Aztec emperor
  53. Pizarro
    soldier who conquered inca
  54. Atahualpa
    Brother who overthrew his brother emperor of Inca and he was eventually conquered by pizarro offered gold for his ransom chose to be baptized before being executed.
  55. Machu Picchu
    Mountain City never found by spanish
  56. El Dorado
    Legendary city of gold
  57. Bartolome de las casas
    Priest who went with conquistadors and wrote a book about all the horrible things the spanish did to the natives.
  58. What are the four largest Latino populations in the U.S.?
    Mexicans,Puerto Ricans,Cubans, Salvadorans
  59. What three groups have the highest rate of U.S. citizenship? What factors do you think explain these statistics?
    Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Mexicans. Puerto Rico is owned by the U.S., Mexico borders the U.S., and Cuba has a corrupt government and close ties to the U.S. every since the Cold War.
  60. Generally speaking what are the 2 approaches used to define whether someone is Hispanic or Latino?
    The first approach defines a Hispanic or Latino as a member of an ethnic group that traces its roots to 20 Spanish-speaking nations from Latin America and Spain itself (but not Portugal or Portuguese-speaking Brazil). The second approach states that whoever says they are Hispanic or Latino is.
  61. As of 2008 what % of people in the U.S. were Latino/Hispanic?
  62. Do Brazilians, filipinos,and portugese define themselves as Latino/Hispanic?
  63. 10.They are if they say they are but for the most part these people don’t identify with the Latino/Hispanic heritage.
  64. For Latinos/Hispanics is there a preference for the terms they use to describe themselves?
  65. 12.They normally describe themselves by their country of origin.
  66. What is the Bracero program?
    It was a guest worker program, where big farmers would hire Mexicans to come work for them during their busiest times of the year like the harvest time.
  67. who is Cesar Chavez?
    He was a civil rights, Latino, farm worker, and labor leader; a religious and spiritual figure; a community servant and social entrepreneur; a crusader for nonviolent social change; and an environmentalist and consumer advocate.
  68. What are the main natice languages spoken in South America?
    Quechua, Praguayan Guaran,Mapudungun.
  69. What is the new iowans program?
    Helps mainly latino newcomers fit into communities and find jobs with employers that meet their non english speaking needs yet still pay well.
  70. Sor Juana Ines De la Cruz
    you men
  71. Ruben Dario
    to Roosevelt
  72. Pablo Neruda
    La United Fruit Co. and Ode to my socks
  73. Iberian Peninsula
    Present day spain and portugal
  74. Latifundos
    Huge land grants awarded to soldiers for previous military conquests in outlying portions of the Roman Empire.
  75. Patron
  76. Moors
    Arab Berber peoples bent on spreading the islamic gospel.
  77. La limpieza de la sangre
    those who couldnt demonstrate the purity of their bloodline and who were assumed to be decsendants of new christians
  78. The Reconquest
    corresponded with a gradual worldwide decline in the fortunes of the Islamic world. the wars in which the christians begin defeating the moors.
  79. Treaty of Tordesillas
    established as the boundary between the portuguese and spanish spheres a line 370 leagues west of the cape verde islands.
  80. viceroyalties
    two authoritarian manner vast administrative units governed by viceroys.
  81. House of Trade
    was responsible for the implementation fo the large and complex set of laws that made up the spanish mercantile system.
  82. encomienda system
    one of the principal mechanisms through which the European aristocracy exploited the natice american indians.
  83. Monroe doctrine
    a warning that the US wouldnt permit renewed European military involvement in the Western hemisphere
  84. Simon Bolivar
    the leader of the independence movemetns of the andean nations
  85. Magellan
    38 days to traverse the dangerouse 360 mile strait between the continental mainland and tierra del fuego
  86. Benito Juarez
    a pure blodded indian from the southern state of Oaxaca who governed with amorla rectitude that has rarely been approached in subsequent Mexican history.
  87. Somoza Dynasty
    Somoza became president in 1937 and proceeded to establish an exceptionally corrupt and long lived dynasty when his youngest son came to rule in the 1970s it was estimated that the extended family controlled fully half the wealth of the nation.
  88. Jose Marti
    a young poet living in exile in the U.S. during the mexican american war.
  89. Fidel Castro
    led a band of youthful revolutionaries in cuba to attack the moncada military barracks. castro would eventually assume power.
  90. commonwealth
    free associated state ex puerto rico is a commonwealth of the U.S.
  91. Salvador Allende
    candidate of the Marxist party, and became Latin Americas first freely elected marxist head of state.
  92. Pinochet
    replaced allende with a military dictatorship
  93. Dirty War
    kidnapping, torturing, and/or killin of some 30,000 argentine citizens during a period os state terrorism.
  94. platt amendment
    granted the US the use of Cuban military bases, including the naval base that the US still holds at Guatanamo
  95. Treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo
    is the peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States to the interim government of a militarily occupied Mexico City, that ended the Mexican-American War
  96. Human Development Index
    published annually by the UN development program, one of the most balanced methods designed to date to measure development.
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