First Generation Pesticides
- Highly toxic preparations made of ashes, sulfur, arsenic compunds, ground tabacco, or hydrogen cyanide.
- Zinic, lead and mercury compunds were also use
- An organochlorine insecticde used first to control malaria-carrying mosquitos and lice and later controlled a variety of insect pest but banned in USA bc of persistence in envior. and ability to bioaccumulate
- organic compound in secticidal properties.
Second Gerneration pesicides
- Synthetic organic
- DDT became the 1st & 2nd generation pesticide.
- Replace pesticides that contained harmful chem.
Chem subtance that kill insects,weeds and a whole assortment of organisms that reduce crop output.
- Discarded solid, liquid or gaseous material that may pose substantial threat/ potential hazard to humans health or envoir. when improperly handled.
- Highly reactive
Surface Advantages and disadvantages:
- only 10% of enviorn. is distrubed
- Alot of mineral is left behind(cave in's, explosion)
- Harmful 2 workers bc of exposed elements, dust expensive
- counts as majority of diff mineral elements that r extracted from usa.
- Utilize heavy equipmetn with usage of fossil fuel scares large area of surface
- revegatate and close hole doesnt appy to LCD air pollution and water pollution.
Estimation of Risk
- Determines the propability of an event or occurqnce "how likey of event/occrance"
- Determine severity of an event,answering question "how much damage could be caused"
- Help ppl understand & quantify risks posed by technology, our lifestyles & other personal habits( smoking)
- Hazard identification:
- involves stpes to identify potential and real dangers.Estimation of risk:1.determines the porbability of an event or accurance "how likely
Large dose to determine toxicity
High-does studies reduce # od lab animals beeded and can cut time/cost
Theshold level large doses
- Thereshold= level below which no effect occurs.
- Researchers use high does to speed up expierments.
- General Rule= entire process from exposure to manifestation takes about 1/8 th of life span of an animal.