Bio Chapter 20

  1. Recombinant DNA
    combining nucleotide sequences from two different sources
  2. Genetic engineering
    direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
  3. Plasmids
    small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the bacterial chromosome
  4. Restriction enzymes
    • cut DNA molecules at restriction cites
    • eventually makes recombinant DNA
  5. Restriction cites
    specific DNA sequences
  6. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    • can produce many copies of a specific target segment of DNA
    • 3 steps: 1) Heating, 2) Cooling, 3) Replication
  7. First round PCR
    • 1 molecule DNA makes 2 molecules identical to each other
    • (Second round = 4 molecules, Third round = 8 molecules)
  8. Cooling in PCR
    Adds taq polymerase (enzyme) and free nucleotides to let DNA cool
  9. Gel electrophoresis
    uses gel as a molecular sieve to separate nucleic acids or proteins by size
  10. DNA
    negatively charged because it has a phosphate backbone
  11. Banding patterns
    each are unique because of the unique DNA
  12. Organismal cloning
    produces one or more organisms genetically identical to the "parent" that donated the single cell
  13. Totipotent cell
    one that can generate a complete new organsism
  14. Dolly the sheep
    • big success and big deal
    • first time successfully cloned a whole animal
  15. Stem cell
    • relatively unspecialized cell that can reproduce itself indefinitely and differentiate into specialized cells of one or more types
    • research for doing therapeutic growth, not reproducing a person
  16. embryonic stem cells
    • stem cells isolated from early embryos at the blastocyst stage
    • totipotent
  17. Gene therapy
    only have to affect 1 type of cell in our bodies
Card Set
Bio Chapter 20
Chapter 20 Biotechnology