The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes
__ are a plant's main photosynthetic organs. __ is closely associated with its photosynthetic function.
A loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.
The ____ in leaves are specialized for photosynthesis. These cells contain many ____.
An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis.
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
___ are the sites of photosynthesis. These double-membrane bound organelles enclose additional membranes called ___, which possess an interior space and are stacked to form ___, which are suspended in the ___ of the chloroplasts.
The emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero.
The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer.
The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
Sunlight is a type of energy called ___, or ___, which travels through space in a manner similar to the motion of waves in water. .
The distance between the crests of two adjacent waves is called a ___. The full range of electromagnetic wavelengths is known as the ____. What we call visible light--the wavelengths that our eyes see as different colors--is only a small fraction of the spectrum. The light reactions of photosynthesis use only certain wavelengths, or colors, of visible light
The thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts contains light-absorbing molecules called ___.
Different pigments absorb light of different wavelengths.
One pigment, ___, absorbs mainly blue-violet and red light. This molecule participates directly in the light reactions.
Another molecule, __, absorbs mainly blue and orange light. We do not see these absorbed colors when we look at a leaf. Instead, we see the green wavelengths that are reflected back from the leaf or transmitted through it
Light-capturing unit located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast, consisting of a reaction center surrounded by numerous light-harvesting complexes. There are two types of them, I and II; they absorb light best at different wavelengths.
sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
electron transport chain
Two ___, two ___, and ___are the key components of the light reactions of photosynthesis. These parts are embedded in the thylakoid membranes of a chloroplast.
The ____consist of arrays of chlorophyll molecules. ___-- the green pigment of leaves-- absorbs light energy. The absorbed energy ___ electrons to a higher energy level.
Energized electrons from ___are passed down an __ and added to __ to form __. Meanwhile, energized electrons from __are passed through another __. Their energy is used to pump __from the stroma into the thylakoid compartment, creating a concentration gradient.
Electrons leaving this __ enter __, replenishing its lost electrons. __replenishes its electrons by splitting __. Hydrogen ions and oxygen are released into the thylakoid compartment. This is where the __generated by photosynthesis comes from.
single proton with a charge of 1+. The dissociation of a water molecule (H2O) leads to the generation of a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+).
The buildup of __ inside the thylakoid compartment stores ___. This energy is harvested by an enzyme called __.
As hydrogen ions diffuse through ___, down their concentration gradient, the enzyme uses the energy of the moving ions to make __. Next, __and __are used in the sugar-making process of the __.
In the ___, this stored energy is used to produce sugar molecules.
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
The ___ is a complex series of chemical reactions carried out in the stroma.
The Calvin cycle begins with ___. Three molecules of ___ are added to three molecules of a five-carbon sugar abbreviated __. These molecules are then rearranged to form six molecules called __, which have three carbons each.
In the next two reactions, products from the light reactions are used to boost the energy of these three-carbon molecules. First, ___ groups are added. __contribute phosphate groups, so that each three-carbon molecule receives an additional phosphate group.
six ATP molecules
In the second reaction of the Calvin Cycle, Six molecules of __ are oxidized. The electrons from NADPH reduce the six three-carbon compounds, creating six high-energy molecules of __, which is a sugar, the final product of the Calvin cycle.
G3P (glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate)
One of the ___ represents the three carbon dioxide molecules fixed so far. The other five __ are reshuffled to regenerate the original __ molecules.
To summarize, so far the Calvin cycle has used the energy of the light reactions to reduce three molecules of __ and produce one molecule of __.
Three more carbon dioxide molecules are fixed to form __ in this same complicated way.
To make each G3P, the Calvin Cycle consumes __ ATP molecules and _ NADPH molecules. These are regenerated in the __.
__ is the actual final product of the Calvin cycle. The cell can combine two _ to make __, which stores the energy that chlorophyll originally captured from the sun.
In warm, dry conditions many of the adaptations that plants make to conserve __ reduce the availability of ___ to the chloroplasts.
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.