1. Na +
    Supplemenation before smoltification may be of benefit
  2. K function
    control of osmorality and pH
  3. K def. induced?
    chemically defined diets or certain pathological conditions that could promote K excretion
  4. changes in [K]
    • fresh -> sea = increase in [K]
    • head -> tail = increase in [K]
    • -due to smaller cells
    • -increase in CT (have less [K])
  5. K def. signs
    muscle weakness
  6. [Ca] in sea water vs. fresh water
    • sea water:
    • -have an abundance in [Ca] but low in [P], therefore req is readily met
    • -excess is secreted, dietary Ca:P should be 1:1

    • fresh water:
    • -have less [Ca] vs. sea water, Ca dietary req is low
  7. What affects Ca absorption?
    • Magnesium
    • Barium
    • Stronium
    • Zinc
    • Copper
  8. Phosphorus function
    • bone mineralization
    • structural component of soft tissues
    • products of energetics and PRO synthesis
  9. Phosphorus sources
    not readily absorbed in the water, therefore must be dietarily provided

    • animal-based feeds have sufficient [P]
    • plant-based feeds need inorganic supplementation of P
  10. Phytin
    • mixed salt of phytin acid + Ca + Mg
    • source of P and Mg however it is not readily available
    • is broken down by phytase - endogenous to GI tract or synthesized by MO
    • decreases bioavailability of Zn, Cu, Co, Mg, Mn, Ca, Fe, and PRO
  11. Phosphorus def. signs
    • reduced growth
    • poor feed conversion
    • poor bone mineralization
  12. Mg function
    • bone mineralization
    • neuromuscular transmission
  13. [Mg] in sea water vs. fresh water
    • sea water:
    • meets Mg req unless [Ca] is high, Ca affects Mg absorption. high [Ca] creates a lower threshold for Mg def.

    • fresh water:
    • do not supply Mg, must be provided dietarily: animal based. (plant based is not as readily available - phytin)
  14. Zn function
    • enzyme chemical structure
    • activator of enzymes
    • important for CHO, PRO, lipid metabolism
  15. Mg def. signs
    • decreased growth rate
    • lethargy
    • decreased appetite
    • nephrocalcinosis
    • convulsions
    • cataracts
    • degeneration of muscle fibers
    • spinal curvature
    • poor mineralization
    • mortality
  16. Zn def. signs
    • lenticular cataracts*
    • shrot-body dwarfism
    • fin & skin erosion
    • decreased growth rate
    • decreased appetite
    • mortality
  17. what affects Zn absorption?
    • phosphatase
    • carbonate of Ca, Na, K
  18. Change in Mn req?
    smaller fish needs more Mn compared to bigger fish
  19. Mn def. signs
    • short-body dwarfism
    • loss of equilibrium
    • cataracts
    • abnormal tail growth
    • poor hatchability
    • poor growth rate
  20. Fe function
    important for heme proteins, hemoglobin, myoglobin
  21. Fe def. sign
    hypochromic & macrocytic anemia
  22. Cu functions
    • blood formation
    • stability of CT and elastin
  23. Cu def. signs
    • aortic rupture
    • bone deformation
  24. Se in regards to Vit E
    • have similar def. signs w/ Vit E
    • affected by presence of antioxidants and sulphur AA
  25. Se def. sign
    pancreas disease
  26. Iodine source
    met readily by the water
  27. induced Iodine def
    goitre either by lack of iodine or unidentified goitrogen that reduces availability of iodine
  28. Fluoride function
    protection against dental caries
  29. Fluoride sources
    met by water and diet
  30. Cobalt
    no requirement but is in association with B12.

    • benefits:
    • -increased growth
    • -increased hemoglobin and hematocrit value
    • -increased synthesis of B12 by MO
Card Set
fnh 477, MINERALS